Morphology and its relationship with reproduction and milk production in goat and sheep


  • Never Assan Department of Agriculture Management, Faculty of Science and Technology, Zimbabwe Open University, Zimbabwe.


Morphological characterisation and multifactorial analyses of conformation traits in relation to productivity indicators are critical in goats and sheep breeding programs in particular, as the desired outcome could instigate animal performance change through indirect selection based on the phenotypic measurements. Animal morphology development is complex biological process probably with multiple genes being at play, which might be dependent on the environment, and changing over time, hence recording multiple descriptive morphological dimensions can make relating genotype to phenotype more feasible and, importantly, more relevant in terms of understanding functionality of domestic animals. Morphological traits sometimes referred to linear type traits, biometric, zoometric and conformation traits (measurements) have been of interest in both livestock and poultry production. Due to the fact that some morphological traits are highly correlated to performance traits, their application in animal production among other aspects include: prediction of growth rate, body condition, carcass and milking capacity. This implies that morphological traits correspond to functionality of animals for the purposes of production as a result they have been a useful tool in selection of animals, especially where records are unavailable. Morphological traits can be extremely valuable in animal breeding decision making since they can be used to derive specific scores for heritable traits. In most cases, in view of simplicity of measurement, morphological traits have been part of performance recording appraisal systems. This has worked well to overcome the gap that exist in keeping performance records especially in community based breeding schemes. In most cases records in smallholder production systems are unobtainable hence morphological dimensions become handy for selection purposes. Some of the morphological traits have proved to be the source or representative group of suitable selection markers to elaborate the appropriate breeding program to improve the reproduction and milk production potential of goats and sheep. If morphological traits are to be regarded for incorporation in prospective goat and sheep breeding programs, the relationship between them and reproduction and milk production need to be established. In the advent of multiple regression models the prospects are high to establish correlation analysis between morphological traits with production traits in goats and sheep. In conclusion, the review verified that morphological traits can be used as accurate indicators of animals’ reproductive capacity and milk production potential in goat and sheep production. The purpose of the present review is to highlight the relationship between morphometric characteristics and reproductive and milking potential in goats and sheep production.


Abdelgafar, R.M., Bakhiet, A.O., Ahmed, B.H., 2007. Bi-mode real-time ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis and fetal number in Saanen goats. J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 6, 702-705.

Abdel-Mageed, I., Ghanem, N., 2013. Predicting body weight and longissimus muscle area using body measurements in subtropical goat kids. Egypt J. Sheep Goat Sci., 8, 95-100.

Abdou, M.S.S., El Sayed, M.A.I., Seida, A.A., El Wishy, A.B., 1982. Gonadal and epididymal sperm numbers in adult buffalo bulls. Vet. Med. J. Giza, 30, 327.

Addass, P.A., 2011. Genotype and seasonal variations in testes and paired epididymal sperm production among indigenous bull cattle in Mubi Adamawa State, Nigeria. Agr. Biol. J. N. Am., 2(1), 1922.

Adewumi, 0.0., Ologun, A.G., Alokan, J.A., 2006. Phenotypic variation among milk yield and physical body characteristics of Yankasa and Yankasa X WAD ewes. Afr. J. Sci., 1, 38-41.

Adeyinka, I.A., Mohammed, I.D., 2006. Accuracy of body weight prediction in Nigerian Red Sokoto goats raised in north eastern Nigeria using linear body measurement. Pakistan J. Biol. Sci., 9, 2828-2830.

Afolayan, R.A., 2003. Genetics of growth and development in cattle. PhD Thesis. University of Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Ahmad, M., Latif, M., Ahmad, M., Khan, I.H., Ahmad, N., Anzar, M., 1985. Postmortem studies in infertile buffalo bulls. Anat. Microbiol. Find. Vet. Res., 117(5), 104-109.

Ahmad, N., 1984. Studies on the postnatal development of the reproductive organs in Nili Ravi buffalo calves. MSc. Thesis, Faisalabad - Pakistan, Department of Animal Reproduction, University of Agriculture.

Akpa, G.N., Asiribo, O.E., Oni, O.O., 2003. Relationships among udder and teat size characteristics with milk yield in Red Sokoto goats. J. Trop. Agr., 80, 114-17.

Akpa, G.N., Suleiman, I.O., Alphonsus, C., 2011. Effect of age, hair type and body condition score on body conformation traits in Yankasa rams. Niger. J. Anim. Sci., 13, 23-28.

Ali, M., 1989. Studies on the prepubertal development of the reproductive organs and other related endocrine glands in male Nili Ravi buffalo bull calves of 6-month age. MSc. Thesis, Lahore - Pakistan, Department of Animal Reproduction, College of Veterinary Science.

Aliyari, D., Moeini, M.M., Shahir, M.H., Sirjani, M.A., 2012. Effect of body condition score, live weight and age on reproductive performance of Afshari ewes. Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 7, 904-909.

Alves, J.M., McManus, C., Lucci, C.M., Carneiro, H.C.R., Dallago, B.S., Cadavid, V.G., Marsiaj, P.A.P., Louvandini, H., 2006. Estação de nascimento e puberdade em cordeiros Santa Inês. Rev. Brasil. Zootec., 35(3), 958-966.

Amao, O.A., 2003. Evaluation of udder traits in West Africa Dwarfand Red Sokoto goats. Master Thesis, Department of Animal Production and Health, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

Amao, O.A., Osinowo, O.A., Onwuka, C.F.I., Abiola, S.S., Dipeolu, M.A., 2003. Niger. J. Anim. Prod., 242-252.

An, X.P., Han, D., Hou, J.X., Li, G., Wang, J.G., Yang, M.M., Song, Y.X., Zhou, G.Q., Wang, Y.N., Ling, L., Yan, Q.M., Cao, B.Y., 2009. GnRH gene polymorphisms and their effects on reproductive performance in Chinese goats. Small Rumin. Res., 85, 130-134.

Assan, N., 2015. Prospects for utilization of the relationship between zoometrical measurements and performance traits for poultry and livestock genetic improvement in developing countries. Sci. J. Anim. Sci., 4(11), 124- 132.

Attah, S., Okubanjo, A.O., Omojola, A.B., Adesehinwa, A.O.K., 2004. Body and carcass linear measurements of goats slaughtered at different weights. Liv. Res. Rural Dev., 16, 160-172.

Azor, P.J., Goyache, F., Gutiérrez, J.P., 2008. Statistical methods and genetic differentiation between populations. In: de Andalucía, J. (eds.) La ganadería andaluza en el siglo XXI. Patrimonio Ganadero Andaluz. Sevilla, Spain. 3, 169-184.

Babale, D.M., Millam, J.J., Hassan, H.Y., Kefas, B.W., 2018. Linear body and reproductive organ characteristics of West African Dwarf goats fed groundnut haulms and cowpea husk with brewers dried grain supplement. MOJ Anatom. Physiol., 5(5).

Bailey, T.L., Hudson, R.S., Powe, T.A., Riddell, M.G., Wolfe, D.F., Carson, R.L., 1998. Caliper and ultrasonographic measurements of bovine testicles and a mathematical formula for determining testicular volume and weight in vivo. Theriogenol., 49(3), 581-594.

Bailey, T.L., Monke, D., Hudson, R.S., Wolfe, D.F., Carson, R.L., Riddell, M.G., 1996. Testicular shape and its relationship to sperm production in mature Holstein bulls. Theriogenol., 46(3), 881-887.

Bedada, Z.E., Gilo, B.N., Debela, G.T., 2019. Morphometric and physical characterization of Borana indigenous goats in southern Oromia, Ethiopia. Univers. J. Agr. Res., 7(1), 25-31.

Berndtson, W.E., Igbochi, G., Pickett, P.W., 1987. Relationship between absolute numbers of sertoli cells to testicular size and spermatogenesis in young beef bulls. J. Anim. Sci., 64(1), 2416.

Blackmore, D.W., McGulliard, L.D., Lush, J.L., 1995. Genetic relationship between body measurements at three ages in Holstein. J. Dairy Sci., 41, 1045.

Bose, S., Basu, S.B., 1984. Relationship between body weight-measurement and meat production in Beetal goats. Indian Vet. J., 61, 670-673.

Brito, I.F.C., Silva, A.E.D., Unanian, M.M., Dode, M.A.N., Barbos, R.T., Kastelic, J.P., 2004. Sexual development in early and late maturity Bos Indicus and Bos Indicus X Bos Taurus cross bred bulls in Brazil. New York, Elsevier Science Inc. Theriogenol., 1177-1217.

Caja, G., Such, X., 1999. Curso de actualizacion so breordenomecanico de ovino y caprino. SEOC-UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona.

Cam, M.A., Olfaz, M., Soydan, E., 2010. Body measurements reflect body weights and carcass yields in Karayaka sheep. Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 5, 120-127.

Carretero, A., Ruberte, J., Caja, G., Perez-Aparicio, F.J., Such, X., 1999. Study on the structure and the development of the canalicular system of the mammary gland during lactation in Manchega and Lacaune dairy sheep. In: Barillet, F., Zervas, N.P. (eds.) Milking and milk production of dairy sheep and goats. EAAP Publication, Wageningen Pers; Wageningen, 95, 35-40.

Carta, A., Sanna, S.R., Ruda, G., Casu, S., 1999. Genetic aspects of udder morphology in Sardaprimiparous ewes. In: Barillet, F., Zervas, N.P. (eds.) Milking and milk production of dairy sheep and goats. EAAP publication, Wageningen Pers, Wageningen, 95, 363-368.

Charon, K.M., Skolasinski, W., 1988. The genetic variability of the resistance of sheep to mastitis and the possibility of its application in breeding. Page 640 in Proc. 3rd World Congr. Sheep Cattle Breeding. Int. Com., Paris, France.

Chu, M.X., Wu, Z.H., Feng, T., Cao, G.L., Fang, L., Di, R., Huang, D.W., Li, X.W., Li, N., 2011. Polymorphism of GDF9 gene and its association with litter size in goats. Vet. Res. Comm., 35(6), 329-336.

Colas, G., Lefebre, J., Guerin, Y., 1990. A study of the transmission from sire to male progeny of seasonal variations in testis diameter and percentage of abnormal spermatozoa in Ile-de-France ram. Reprod. Nutr. Dev., 30, 589-603.

Cole, J.B., Wiggans, G.R., Ma, L., Sonstegard, T.S., Lawlor, T.J.Jr., Crooker, B.A., 2011. Genome-wide association analysis of thirty-one productions, health, reproduction and body conformation traits in contemporary U.S. Holstein cows. BMC Genom., 12, 408.

Constantinou, A., 1989. Genetic and environmental relationships of body weight, milk yield and litter size in Damascus goats. Small Rumin. Res., 2, 163-174.

De Riviers, M., Williams, J.B., 1984. Testes development and production of spermatozoa in the cockerels (Gallus domesticus). In: Cunningham, F.J., Lake, P.E., Hewitt, D. (eds.) Reproductive biology of poultry. Longman, Harlow, 183-202.

Delgado, J.V., Barba, C., Camacho, M.E., Sereno, F., Martínez, A., Vega-Pla, J.L., 2001. Caracterización de los ani-males domésticos en España. AGRI-FAO, 29, 7-18.

Delgado, J.V., Barba, C., Camacho, M.E., Sereno, F.T.P.S., Martínez, A., Vega-Pla, J.L., 2001. Characterization of domestic animals in Spain. Anim. Gen. Res. Inf., 29, 7-18.

Dyrmundsson, O.R., 1973. Puberty and early reproductive performance in sheep. II. Ram lambs. Anim. Breed., 41, 419-430.

Dyrmundsson, O.R., Lees, J.L., 1972. Puberal development of Clun Forest ram lambs in relation to time of birth. J. Agr. Sci., 79, 83-89.

Egbunike, G.N., Holtz, W., Smidt, D., 1976. Reproductive capacity of German Landrace boars. II: Sperm production rates as determined by quantitative testicular histology and from gonadal sperm reserves. Zuchthygeine, 11, 35-37.

Feng, T., Geng, C.X., Lang, X.Z., Chu, M.X., Cao, G.L., Di, R., Fang, L., Chen, H.Q., Liu, X.L., Li, N., 2011. Polymorphisms of caprine GDF9 gene and their association with litter size in Jining Grey goats. Mol. Biol. Reprod., 38(8), 5189-5197.

Fernandez, G., Baro, J.A., de la Fuente, L.F., San Primitivo, F., 1997. Genetic parameters for linear udder traits of dairy ewes. J. Dairy Sci., 80(3), 601-605.

Fernandez, G., de la Fuente, L.F., San Primitivo, F., Gonzalo, C., 1995. Linear udder traits and somatic cell count in dairy sheep. Page 99 in Abstracts of Lectures and Posters Sem. Production and Utilization of Ewes’ and Goats’ Milk. Int. Dairy Fed., Brussels, Belgium.

Fields, M.J., Burns, W.C., Warnick, A.C., 1979. Age season and breed effects on testicular volume and semen traits in young beef bulls. J. Anim. Sci., 6(48), 1229-1304.

Gage, M.J., Freckleton, R.P., 2003. Relative testis size and sperm morphometry across mammals: No evidence for an association between sperm competition and sperm length. Proc. Biol. Sci., 270(1515), 625-632.

Gaskins, C.T., Snowder, G.D., Westman, M.K., 2005. Influence of body weight, age and weight gain on fertility and prolificacy in four breeds of ewe lambs. J. Anim. Sci., 83(7), 1680-1689.

Ghannam, S.A.M., Medhat, M.N., El-Tawil, A., 1977. Puberty in Awassi ram lambs. II. Development of the testes, epididymis and seminal vesicles. Z. Tierzuchtg. Zuchtgsbiol., 94, 235-541.

Haldar, A., Pal, P., Datta, M., Paul, R., Pal, S.K., Majumdar, D., Biswas, C.K., Pan, S., 2014a. Prolificacy and its relationship with age, body weight, parity, previous litter size and body linear type traits in meat-type goats. Asian Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 27(5), 628-634.

Haldar, A., Pal, P., Majumdar, D., Biswas, C.K., Ghosh, S., Pan, S., 2014b. Body linear traits for identifying prolific goats, Vet. World, 7(12), 1103-1107.

Hall, D.G., Gilmour, A.R., Fogarty, N.M., 1994. Variation in reproduction and production of poll Dorset ewes. Aust. J. Agr. Res., 45, 415-425.

Hartwig, N., 2002. Sheep Health. Iowa State University of Science and Technology, U.S Department of Agriculture, USA.

Hassan, A., Ciroma, A., 1992. Body weight measurements relationship in Nigerian Red Sokoto goats In: Rey, B., Lebbie, S.H.B., Reynolds, L. (eds.) Small ruminant research and development in Africa proceedings of the first biennial conference of the African small ruminant research network. ILRAD, 10-14 December 1990, Nairobi, Kenya.

Haughey, K.G., Gray, C.H., 1982. A radiographic technique for pelvimentry of unasaesthestised ewe and a comparison of three methods of estimating the area of the pelvic inlet. Aust. Vet. J., 58, 51-59.

Houle, D., Govindaraju, D.R., Omholt, S., 2010. Phenomics: the next challenge. Nat. Rev. Genet., 11, 855-866.

Houle, D., Pélabon, C., Wagner, G.P., 2011. Measurement and meaning in biology. Q. Rev. Bio., 86, 3-34.

Ibrahim, A.A., Aliyu, J., Ashiru, M., Jamilu, M., 2012. Biometric study of the reproductive organs of three breeds of sheep in Nigeria. Intern. J. Morphol., 30(4), 1597-1603.

Idowu, S.T., Adewumi, O.O., Tona, G.O., 2017. The relationship among dam’s milk parameters, weight, udder parameters and linear body measurements in West African Dwarf sheep at first lambing. J. Anim. Sci. Liv. Prod., 1, 1.

Iñiguez, L., Hilali, M., Thomas, D.L., Jesry, G., 2009. Udder measurements and milk production in two Awassi sheep genotypes and their crosses. J. Dairy Sci., 92, 4613-4620.

Islam, M.R., Saadullah, A.R., Howlider, M.A.R., Huq, M.A., 1991. Estimation of live weight and dressed carcass weight from different body measurements in goats. J. Anim. Sci., 61(4), 460-461.

Iyiola-Tunji, A.O., Olugbemi, T.S., Ali, A.O., Ojo, O.A., 2011. Inter-relationship between body measurements and price of sheep in an open market in Kano State. Anim. Prod., 13(1), 64-68.

Jafari, S., Hashemi, A., 2014. Estimation of genetic parameters for body measurements and their association with yearling liveweight in the Makuie sheep breed. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci., 44(2), 141-147.

Jatsch, O., Sagi, R., 1979. Machine milkability as related to dairy yield and its fractions in dairy ewes. Ann. Zootech., 28, 251.

Jena, S., Malik, D.S., Kaswan, S., Sharma, A., Kashyap, N., Singh, U., 2019. Relationship of udder morphometry with milk yield and body condition traits in Beetal goats. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 89(2), 204-208.

Johnson, H.D., 1980. Depressed chemical thermogenesis and hormonal functions in heat. In: Johnson, H.D. (eds.) Environmental physiology: aging, heat, and altitude. Amsterdam: Elsevier, Netherlands.

Karen, A., Amiri, B.E., Beckers, J.F., Sulon, J., Taverne, M.A.M., Szenci, O., 2006. Comparison of accuracy of transabdominal ultrasonography, progesterone and pregnancy associated glycoproteins tests for discrimination between single and multiple pregnancy in sheep. Theriogenol., 66, 314-322.

Kilgour, R.J., Haughey, K.G., 1993. Pelvic size in Merino ewes selected for lamb rearing ability is greater than that of unselected Merino ewes. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 31, 237-242.

Koyuncu, M., Uzun, S.K., Ozis, S., Duru, S., 2005. Development of testicular dimensions and size, and their relationship to age and body weight in growing Kivircik (Western Thrace) ram lambs. Czech. J. Anim. Sci., 50(6), 243-248.

Kumar, C.S.P., Singh, S.N., Balraj, S., 1983. Relationship between milk yield and udder biometries in Black Bengal goats. Indian J. Dairy Sci., 36, 105-107.

Labussie `re, J., 1988. Review of physiological and anatomical factors influencing the milking ability of ewes and the organization of milking. Liv. Prod. Sci., 18, 253.

Lambe, N.R., Navajas, E.A., Schofield, C.P., Fisher, A.V., Simm, G., 2008. The use of various live animal measurements to predict carcass and meat quality in two divergent lamb breeds. Meat Sci., 80, 1138-1149.

Latorre, E., Uribe, H., Martínez, M.E., Calderón, C., De La Barra, R., 2011. Morphology differentiation and structural functionality of ewes due to uncomplete crossbreeding. Int. J. Morphol., 29(3), 954-959.

Legarra, A., Ugarte, E., 2005. Genetic parameters of udder traits, somatic cell score, and milk yield in Latxa sheep. J. Dairy Sci., 88, 2238-2245.

MacMillan, K.I., Hafs, H.D., 1969. Reproductive tract of Holstein bulls from birth through puberty. J. Anim. Sci., 28(2), 233-239.

Martins, R.D., McManus, C., Carvalhêdo, A.S., Borges, H.V., Silva, A.E.D.F., Santos, N.R., 2003. Avaliação da sazonalidade reprodutiva de carneiros Santa Inês criados no Distrito Federal. Rev. Brasil. Zootec., 32(6), 1594-1603.

McLaren, A., Mucha, S., Mrode, R., Coffey, M., Conington, M., 2016. Genetic parameters of linear conformation type traits and their relationship with milk yield throughout lactation in mixed-breed dairy goats. J. Dairy Sci., 99, 5516-5525.

Mellado, M., Mellado, J., Valencia, M., Pittroff, W., 2008. The relationship between linear type traits and fertility traits in high-yielding dairy goats. Reprod. Domes. Anim., 43(5), 599-605.

Mikus, M., 1978. Study of the mutual relationships between dimension of the udder with regard to improvement of the sheep for machine milking. Page 102 in Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. Machine Milking Small Ruminants. Inst. Nat. Rech. Agron., Alghero, Italy.

Moallem, U., Rozov, A., Gootwine, E., Honig, H., 2012. Plasma concentrations of key metabolites and insulin in late-pregnant ewes carrying 1 to 5 fetuses. J. Anim. Sci., 90, 318-324.

Moreira, E.P., Moura, A.A.A., Araujo, A.A., 2001. Efeitos da insulação escrotal sobre a biometria testicular e parâmetros seminais em carneiros da raça Santa Inês criados no estado do Ceará. Rev. Brasil. Zootec., 30(6), 1704-1711.

Nye, J., Zingaretti, L.M., Pérez-Enciso, M., 2020. Estimating conformational traits in dairy cattle with DeepAPS: A two-step deep learning automated phenotyping and segmentation approach. Front. Genet., 11, 513.

Orlu, E.E., Egbunike, G.N., 2010. Breed and seasonal variation in the testicular morphometry, gonadal and extragonadal sperm reserves or Barred Plymouth Rock and Nigerian indigenous breeds of the domestic fowl. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 13(3), 120-125.

Osinowo, E.O., Molokwu, E.C., Osori, D.C., 1981. Growth and testicular development in Bunaji bulls. J. Anim. Res., 1(1), 55-67.

Ott, R.S., Heath, E.H., Bane, A., 1982. Abnormal spermatozoa, testicular degeneration, and varicocele in a ram. Am. J. Vet. Res., 43(2), 2415.

Oyeyemi, M.O., Ola-Davies, O.E., Oke, A.O., Idehen, C., 2000. Morphological changes in sperm cells during epididymal transit in West African Dwarf Bucks. Trop. Vet., 18, 207-212.

Pacheco, A., Oliveira, A.F., Quirino, C.R., Landim, A.V., 2009. Características seminais de carneiros da raça Santa Inês na pré-puberdade, puberdade e na póspuberdade. Ars. Vet., 25(2), 90-99.

Pan, S., Biswas, C.K., Majumdar, D., Sengupta, D., Patra, A., Ghosh, S., Haldar, A., 2014. Influence of age, body weight, parity and morphometric traits on litter size in prolific Black Bengal goats. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 43, 1.

Peris, S., Caja, G., Such, X., 1999. Relationship between udder and milking traits in Murciano-Granadina goats. Small Rumin. Res., 33, 171-79.

Petrovic, M.P., Petrovic, V.C., Muslic, R.D., Iliæ, Z., Spasiæ, Z., Stojkoviæ, J., Makshimovic, N., 2012. Genetic and phenotypic of the body measured traits in Merinolandschaf breed of sheep. Biotech. Anim. Husb., 28(4), 733-741.

Purbey, L.N., Choudhury, N., 1985. Biometry of different parts of morbid genitalia in nondescript male buffalos. Indian Vet. Med. J., 9, 1215.

Raji, A.O., Igwebuike, J.U., Aliyu, J., 2008. Testicular biometry and its relationship with body weight of indigenous goats in a semi-arid region of Nigeria. ARPN J. Agr. Biol. Sci., 3(4), 155-60.

Rege, J.E., 1992. Animal genetic resources their characterization, conservation and utilization. Research Planning Workshop, 55-59.

Riva, J., Rizzi, R., Marelli, S., Cavalchini, G., 2002. Body measurements in Bergamasca sheep. Small Rumin. Res., 221-227.

Rupp, R., Clément, V., Piacere, A., Robert-Granié, C., Manfredi, E., 2011. Genetic parameters for milk somatic cell score and relationship with production and udder type traits in dairy Alpine and Saanen primiparous goats. J. Dairy Sci., 94, 3629-3634.

Sagi, R., Morag, M., 1974. Udder conformation, milk yield and milk fractionation in the dairy ewe. Ann. Zootech., 23, 185.

Salako, A.E., 2006. Application of morphological indices in the assessment of type and function in sheep. Intern. J. Morphol., 24, 13-18.

Salhab, S.A., Zarkawi, M., Wardeh, M.F., Al-Masri, M.R., Kassem, R., 2001. Development of testicular dimensions and size, and their relationship to age, body weight and parental size in growing Awassi ram lambs. Small Rumin. Res., 40, 187-191.

Schoeman, S.J., Els, H.C., Combrink, G.C., 1987. A preliminary investigation into the use of testis size in cross-bred rams as a selection index for ovulation rate in female relatives. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci., 17, 144-147.

Senthilkumar, S., Kannan, T.A., Ramesh, G., Sumathi, D., Gnanadevi, R., 2019. Gross morphometric findings of udder and teat in Boer local she-goats. Pharm. Innov. J., 8(12), 301-303.

Setchell, B.P., 1997. Male reproductive organs and semen. In: Cole, H.H., Cupps, P.T. (eds.) Reproduction in domestic animals. 3rd ed. New York, Academic Press. 229-253.

Sharaby, M.A., Sulleiman, I.O., 1987. Factors influencing meat production traits and their association with body weight dimensions. Word Rev. Anim. Prod., 23(4), 86-88.

Siddik, K.A., Karaca, S., Mertagioglu, H., 2005. A study of relationships between milk yield and some udder traits by using of path analysis in Akkeci goats. J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 4, 547-550.

Sieber, M., Freeman, A.E., Kelley, D.H., 1989. Effect of body measurements and weight on calf size and calving difficulty of Holsteins. J. Dairy Sci., 72, 2402-2410.

Söderquist, L., Hultén, F., 2006. Normal values for the scrotal circumference in rams of Gotlandic breed. Reprod. Domest. Anim., 41(1), 61-62.

Sogstad, Å.M., Østerås, O., Fjeldaas, T., 2006. Bovine claw and limb disorders related to reproductive performance and production diseases. J. Dairy Sci., 89, 2519-2528.

Thiruvenkadan, A.K., 2005. Determination of best fitted regression model for estimation of body weight in Kanni Adu kids under farmer's management. Liv. Res. Rural Dev., 17, 85.

Togun, V.A., Egbunike, G.N., 2006. Seasonal variations in the sperm production characteristics of Zebu (White Fulani) cattle genitalia in the humid tropical environment. Middle East J. Sci. Res., 1(1), 87-95.

Traoré, A., Tamboura, H.H., Kabore, A., Royo, L.J., Fernández, I., Álvarez, I., Sangare, M., Bouchel, D., Poivey, J.P., Francois, D., Sawadogo, L., Goyache, F., 2008. Multivariate analyses on morphological traits in goats in Burkina Faso. Arch. Tierz., 51, 588-600.

Ugwu, S.O.C., 2009. Relationship between Scrotal circumferences, in situ testicular measurement and sperm reserves in the West African Dwarf Bucks. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 8(7), 1354-1357.

Unanian, M.M., Silva, A.E.D.F., McManus, C., Cardoso, E.P., 2000. Características biométricas testiculares para avaliação de touros zebuínos da raça Nelore. Rev. Brasil. Zootec., 29(1), 136-144.

Upadhyay, D., Patel, B.H.M., Kerketta, S., Kaswan, S., Sahu, S., Bhushan, B., Dutt, T., 2014. Study on udder morphology and its relationship with production parameters in local goats of Rohilkhand region of India. Indian J. Anim. Res., 48(6), 615-619.

van Rooyen, I.M., Fourie, P.J., Schwalbach, L.M.J., 2012. Relationship between pelvic and linear body measurements in Dorper ewes. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci., 42(5), 498-502.

Verma, S.K., Dahiya, S.P., Malik, Z.S., Patil, C.S., Patil, H.R., 2016. Biometrical characterization of Harnali sheep: A new synthetic strain. Indian J. Vet. Res., 25(1), 16-21.

Walker, D., Ritchie, H., Hawkins, D., 1992. Pelvic measurements and calving difficulty in beef cattle. Michigan State University. Department of Animal Science: Charls Gibson Department of Large Animal Clinical Science, Michigan, USA.

Winrock International, 1992. Assessment of Animal Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. Winrock International for Agricultural Development. Morrilton Arkansas, USA.

Yakubu, A., Salako, A.E., Imumorin, I.G., 2010b. Multivariate analysis of spatial patterns of morphological traits in West African Dwarf goats in three agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 38, 257-260.

Yakubu, A., Salako, A.E., Imumorin, I.G., Ige, A.O., Akinyemi, M.O., 2010a. Discriminant analysis of morphometric differentiation in the West African Dwarf and Red Sokoto goats. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci., 40, 381-387.

Zaitoun, I., Tabbaa, M., Bdour, S., 2005. Differentiation of native goat breeds of Jordan on the basis of morphostructural characteristics. Small Rumin. Res., 56, 173-182.

Zeng, Y.H., Lu, B.Q., 1987. The development of sexual activity and semen production in ram lambs of the Hu breed of sheep. Chin. J. Anim. Sci., 3, 5-8.



How to Cite

Assan, N. . (2021). Morphology and its relationship with reproduction and milk production in goat and sheep. Scientific Journal of Zoology, 9(2), 123-137. Retrieved from



Review Article