Some comparative gross and morphometrical studies on the gastrointestinal tract in pigeon (columbia livia) and Japanese quail (coturnix japonica)
Keywords:Comparative, Gastrointestinal tract, Pigeon, Quail
To study the comparative morphology and morphometry of the gastrointestinal tract of the Japanese quail and pigeon, a total number of twenty birds twenty birds (comprising of ten pigeons and ten Japanese quails) of both sexes were used obtained and used by the researhers. The birds were weighed, dissected and the different parts of the gastrointestinal tract located and eviscerated from which the comparative morphologic and morphometric studies were carried out. The numerical data generated were subjected to statistical analyses using the Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and GraphPad Instat statistical package, with values of P<0.05 considered significant. The weights of esophagus in quail and pigeon were 1.66±0.15g and 1.62±0.2g respectively (P>0.05), their corresponding lengths were 9.77±0.35cm and 12.46±0.99cm respectively, while the mean body weights of the quail and pigeon used in the study were 159.5±8.18g and 265±4.86g for the quail and pigeon, respectively (P>0.05). The mean weights of the proventriculus in the quail and pigeon were 0.69±0.07g and 0.54±0.09g respectively (P>0.05) and their mean lengths were 1.75±0.13cm and 1.44±0.28cm respectively; this was not considered significant relative terms. The weights and lengths of gizzard in the quail and pigeon showed different values with the ultimate conclusion that the gizzard’s weight and length were higher in the pigeon than in the quail (P<0.05). It was also seen in both absolute and relative terms that the lengths and weights of the small intestines in the pigeon were higher than that of the quail though with no considerable significant differences (P>0.05). The ceca in the pigeon was rudimentary in contrast to the robust type found in the quail, the weights of both the right and left ceca in the quail and pigeon were considered very significant (P<0.05) and their corresponding lengths considered extremely ssignificant (P<0.05). The colon, being the terminal part of the large intestine is located caudal to the ceca, had their weights in both quail and pigeon not significantly different statistically, but in absolute and relative terms they differed from each other similarly the lengths of the colon in both bird types were considered significant (P<0.05). The vertebrate gastrointestinal tract is a dynamic and energetically expensive organ system whose various anatomical and physiological parameters were regularly being used in clinical evaluations and for assessing dynamics of growth and associated physiological functions for normal and anomalous developments in birds, the knowledge of which will not only add to literatures in these bird types but which will also aid in understanding their biology and mode of domestication as well as being useful for poultry pathologists and clinician, more especially when carrying out postmortem examination.
Ahmed, Y.A.E., Kamel, G., Ahmad, A.A.E., 2011. Histomorphological studies on the stomach of the Japanese quail. Asian Journal of Poultry science 5(2):56-67
Baumgartner, J., 1994. Japanese quail production, breeding and genetics. World Poult Sci J, 50: 227-235.
Brugger, K.E., 1989. Digestive responses to changes in diet, season, photoperiod and temperature in the red-winged blackbird (Angelaius phoeniceus). PhD Dissertation, Gainesville Univ., Florida.
Brugger, K.E., 1991. Anatomical adaptation of the gut to diet in Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus). The AUK 108:562-567.
Casotti, G., 2001. Luminal morphology of the avian lower intestine: Evidence supporting the importance of retrograde peristalsis for water conservation. Anatomical Record, 263: 289 – 296.
Clench, M. H., Mathias, J. R., 1995. The avian cecum-A review. Wilson Bull., 107:93-121.
Degen, A.A., Duke, G.E., Reynhout, J.K., 1994. Gastrointestinal motility and glandular stomach function in young ostriches. Auk, 111:750-755.
Dibner, J. J., Richards, J. D., 2004. The Digestive System: Challenges and Opportunities. J. Appl. Poult. Res., 13:86–93.
Druyan, S., Shinder, D., Shlosberg, A., Cahaner, A., Yahav, S., 2009. Physiological parameters in broiler lines divergently selected for the incidence of Ascites. Poult. Sci., 88: 1984-1990.
Dziala-Szczepanczyk, E., Wesolowska, I., 2008. Morphometric characteristics of esophagus and intestine in tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula) wintering on the baltic coastal areas in north-western Poland. Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities, 11(4), 1 – 35.
Getty, R., 1975. Sisson and Grossmans. The anatomy of the domestic animals, Vol.2. 5th Ed. W.B. Saunders, London, Pp: 1872-1875.
Gebhardt-Henrich, S.G., Heeb, P., Richner, H., Tripet, F., 1998. Does loss of mass during breeding correlate with reproductive success? A study on Blue Tits Parus caeruleus. Int. J. Avi. Sci., 140: 210-213.
Gibbs, D., Eustace, B., John, C., 2007. Pigeon and Doves. A Guide to the Pigeons and Doves of the World. United Kingdom: Pica Press. Pp 624. ISBN 1873403607.
Igwebuike, U.M., Eze, U.U., 2010. Morphological characteristics of the small intestine of the African pied crow (Corvus albus). Animal Research International 7(1): 1116 – 1120.
Johnston, R.F., Janiga, M., 1995. Feral pigeons. Possible Relevance of Pigeons as an Indicator Species for Monitoring Air Pollution. Oxford University Press, New York, New York, USA. p319.
Kehoe, F.P., Ankney, C.D., 1985. Variation in digestive organ size among five species of diving ducks (Aythya spp) Can. J. Zool., 63: 2339-2342.
Kigir, E.S., Sivachelvan, M.N., Kwari, H.D., Sonfada, M.L., Yahaya, A., Thilza, I.B.,Wiam, I.M., 2010. Gross and Microscopic Changes in the Gonads of Male and Female Domestic Pigeon (Columbia Livia). New York Science Journal 3(10)108-111.
Lavin, S.R., Karasov, W.H., Ives, A.R., Middleton, K.M., Garland, T., 2008. Morphometrics of the avian small intestine compared with that of non-flying mammals: a phylogenetic approach. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 81: 526 – 550.
Minvielle, F., 1998. Genetic and breeding of Japanese quail for production around the world.Proc 6th Asian Pacific Poultry Congress, Nogaya, Japan. June, 4-7.
Mobini, B., 2011. Age dependent morphometric changes of different parts of small and large intestines in the Ross broilers. IJAVMS 5(5):456-463.
Omojola, A.B., Isa, M.A., Jibir, M., Ajewole, B.T., Garba, S., Kassim, O.R., Omotoso, A. B., Adeyemo, O.A., Akinleye, S.B., 2012. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Attributes of Pigeon (Columbia Livia) as Influenced by Strain and Sex. J. Anim. Sci. Adv.2(5):475-480.
Parchami, A., Dehkordi, R.A.F., 2011. Histological characteristics of the esophageal wall of the common Quail. World Applied Sciences Journal 14(3):414-419.
Pesek, L., 1999. The Avian digestive tract. In: Winged wisdom Pet Bird magazine, Ezine August, 1999.
Smith, L.S., 1989. Digestive functions in teleost fish. In: Fish Nutrition (J.E. Halvert, Ed). San Diego, Academic Press 331-421.
Starck, J.M., Ricklefs, R.E., 1998. Variation, constraint and phylogeny. Comparative analysis of variation in growth. In Avian Growth and Development (Ed. J.M. Strack and R.E. Ricklefs), pp: 247-265. New York: Oxford University Press.
Tilgar, V., Kilgas, P., Viitak, A., Reynolds, S.J., 2008. The rate of bone mineralization in birds is directly related to alkaline phosphatase activity. Physiol. Biochem. Zool., 81:106-111.
Vatsalya, V., Arora, K.L., 2011. Association between body weight growth and selected physiological parameters in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Int. J. Poult Sci., 10: 680-684.
Wang, J. X., Peng, K. M., 2008. Developmental morphology of the small intestine of African ostrich chicks. Poultry Science, 87: 2629 – 2635.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2012 Sunday Akau Hena, Mamman Legbo Sonfada, Abubakar Danmaigoro, Abdulrahman Bello, Abubakar Abubakar Umar
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.