The science and practice of parenting: Implications for peace building
Keywords:Science of parenting, Practice of parenting, Theories of parenting, Peace building
This article discusses the science and practice of parenting. It unravels the system and process of parenting through exploration of various theories and strategies that are involved in the definition of ideal parenting. The article explores how parenting can either contribute to peace building or to violent behaviour in later life. The article critically considers the theories of parenting, which include the attachment and the social learning theories. In that context, various parenting styles are examined to establish best practices of parenting. Ideal parenting is perceived as one of the strategic factors in minimizing or promoting the prevalence of violence in community settings. This article implores how imperative it is for communities to deliberately invest in the natural and strategic institution of family by empowering contemporary parents and young people who are future parents in the science and practice of parenting. This leads to the conclusion that if the parenting processes are by and large positive, then they will automatically lead to a healthy living of the child in his or her later adult life. Such would manifest in a non-violent peace loving personality as a function of good, positive parenting. On the contrary, negative parenting is the major source of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) which can be a barrier to peace building initiatives. In the ultimate, the article recommends the adoption of a holistic approach to parenting, that is, the merging of multiple theoretical approaches and practices. This recommendation is premised on the hypothetical notion that the ideal parenting style is one which draws from the various styles and theoretical models utilising the strengths of each as a way of coming up with the ideal strategy. It is further recommended therefore that for parenting to be improved, it is important that a special academic discipline on parenting is created.
Antonopoulou, K., Alexopoulos, D.A., Maridaki-Kassotaki, K., 2012. Perceptions of father parenting style, empathy, and self-esteem among Greek preadolescents. Marriage Fam. Rev., 48(3), 293-309.
Bornstein, M.H., 2001. Parenting: science and practice. 1(1-2), 1-4. doi.org/10.1080/15295192.2001.9681208
Brand, S., Hatzinger, M., Beck, J., Holsboer-Trachsler, E., 2009. Perceived parenting styles, personality traits and sleep patterns in adolescents. J. Adolesc., 32, 1189-1207.
Cicchetti, D., Rogosch, F.A., Toth, S.L., 2006. Fostering secure attachment in infants in maltreating families through preventive interventions. Dev. Psychopathol., 18, 623-649.
Erozkan, A., 2012. Examination of relationship between anxiety sensitivity and parenting styles in adolescents. Educ. Sci. Theor. Pract., 12(1), 52-57.
Gardner, F., Burton, J., Klimes, I., 2006. Randomised controlled trial of a parenting intervention in the voluntary sector for reducing child conduct problems: Outcomes and mechanisms of change. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatr., 47(11), 1123-1132.
Holt, S., Buttley, H., Whelan, S., 2008. The impact of exposure to domestic violence on children and young people: A review of the literature. Child Abuse Negl., 32(8), 797-810.
Hood, K.K., Eyberg, S.M., 2003. Outcomes of parent-child interaction therapy: Mothers’ reports of maintenance three to six years after treatment. J. Clin. Child Adolesc. Psychol., 32, 419-429.
Huth-Bocks, A., Hughes, H.M., 2008. The impact of parenting stress and parenting behaviour on children’s adjustment in families experiencing domestic violence. J. Fam. Violence, 23(4), 243-251.
Kazdin, A., 2005. Parent management training. New York: Oxford University Press.
Knappe, S., Beesdo-Baum, K., Wittchen, H., 2010. Familial risk factors in social anxiety disorder: Calling for a family-oriented approach for targeted prevention and early intervention. Eur. Child Adolesc. Psychiatr., 19(12), 857-871.
Lamborn, S.D., Mounts, N.S., Steinberg, L., Dornbusch, S.M., 2008. Patterns of competence and adjustment among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families. Child Dev., 62(5), 1049-1065.
Lightfoot, C., Cole, M., Cole, S., 2009. The development of children. New York: Worth Publishers.
Lipps, G., Lowe, G.A., Gibson, R.C., Halliday, S., Morris, A., Clarke, N., Wilson, R.N., 2012. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies. Child Adolesc. Psychiatr. Ment. Health, 6, 31-42.
Mahmood, S., 2012. A general overview on parenting styles and its effective factors. Aust. J. Basic Appl. Sci., 6(8), 139-142.
Martinez, I., Garcia, J.F., Yubero, S., 2007. Parenting styles and adolescents’ self-esteem in Brazil. Psychol. Rep., 100, 731-745.
Muris, P., Loxton, H., Neumann, A., du Plessis, M., King, N., Ollendick, T., 2006. DSM-defined anxiety disorders symptoms in south African youths: Their assessment and relationship with perceived parental rearing behaviours. Behav. Res. Ther., 44, 883-896.
Muris, P., Meesters, C., Morren, M., Moorman, L., 2004. Anger and hostility in adolescents: Relationships with self-reported attachment style and perceived parental rearing styles. J. Psychosom. Res., 57, 257-264.
Nyarko, K., 2011. The influence of authoritative parenting style on adolescents' academic achievement. Am. J. Soc. Manag. Sci., 2(3), 278-282.
O’Connor, T.G., 2002. Annotation: The ‘‘effects’’ of parenting reconsidered: Findings, challenges, and applications. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatr., 43, 555-557.
Ostrov, J.M., Crick, N.R., 2006. How recent developments in the study of relational aggression and close relationships in early childhood advance the field. Appl. Dev. Psychol., 27, 189-192.
Patterson, G.R., De Baryshe, B.D., Ramsey, E., 1989. A developmental perspective on antisocial behavior. Am. Psychol., 44, 329-335.
Pomerantz, E.M., Grolnick, W.S., Price, C.E., 2005. The role of parents in how children approach achievement. In: Elliot, A.J., Dweck, C.S. (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation, (Online) New York, Guilford Press.
Rubbin, H.K., Chung, B.O., 2006. Parenting beliefs, behaviours, and parent-child relations. A cross cultural perspective. London, Psychology Press.
Saleem, S., Mahmood, Z., Daud, S., 2017. Perceived parenting styles in Pakistan adolescents: A validation study. Pakistani J. Psychol. Res., 32(2), 487-509.
Scaramella, L.V., Leve, L.D., 2004. Clarifying parent-child reciprocities during early childhood: The early childhood coercion model. Clin. Child Fam. Psychol. Rev., 7, 89-107.
Seth, M., Ghormode, K., 2013. The impact of authoritative parenting style on educational performance of learners at high school level. Int. Res. J. Soc. Sci., 2(10), 1-6.
Sroufe, L.A., Carlson, E.A., Levy, A.K., Egeland, B., 1999. Implications of attachment theory for developmental psychopathology. Dev. Psychopathol., 11(1), 1-13.
Stormshak, E.A., Bierman, K.L., Mc Mahon, R.J., Lengua, L.J., 2000. Parenting practices and child disruptive behaviour problems in early elementary school. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. J. Clin. Child Psychol., 29, 17-29.
Uji, M., Sakamoto, A., Adachi, K., Kitamura, T., 2014. The impact of authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles on child’s later mental health in Japan: Focusing on parent and child gender. J. Child Fam. Stud., 23(2), 293-302.
Yang, H., Zhou, S., 2008. Relationship among adult attachment, parenting styles, and self-esteem of female nursing students. Chin. J. Clin. Psychol., 16(2), 189-191.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Patrick Sibanda, Mandlenkosi Moyo
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.