Cover Image

Ingratiation, renqing, mianzi and attraction: a guanxi perspective

Kwok Kuen Tsang, Ting Kin Ng, Ying Wang

Abstract


The investigation of ingratiation has been influenced by the Western perspective that views ingratiation as attraction-seeking behavior. Nevertheless, it has been questioned to what extent this perspective is applicable to Chinese contexts. Scholars recently suggest understanding ingratiation in Chinese contexts from a guanxi perspective that regards ingratiation as a guanxi management strategy. However, there is a lack of studies that test the predictive power of this perspective to Chinese ingratiation. Thus, the aim of this study is to test the guanxi perspective in explaining ingratiation in Chinese societies. Through surveying 203 undergraduate students who studied in Beijing, this study found that (1) the higher the sense of renqing, the more frequent the use of ingratiation tactics of other enhancement, self-presentation, and favor rendering; (2) the higher the sense of mianzi, the more frequent the use of the ingratiation tactics of other enhancement, conformity, and self-presentation; (3) the higher the sense of attraction, the less frequent the use of the conformity tactic; (4) the effects of the senses of mianzi and attraction on ingratiation were mediated by the sense of renqing. In general the findings suggested that the guanxi perspective is significant to explain Chinese ingratiation as a guanxi management strategy.

References


Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182.

Bian, Y. (2001). Guanxi capital and social eating in Chinese cities: Theoretical models and empirical analyses. In N. Lin, K. Cook & R. S. Burt (Eds.), Social capital: Theory and research (pp. 275-295). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Bohra, K. A., & Pandey, J. (1984). Ingratiation toward strangers, friends, and bosses. The Journal of Social Psychology, 122, 217-222.

Cheng, C. Y. (1986). The concept of face and its roots. Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 12, 329-348.

Cooper, C. D. (2005). Just joking around? Employee humor expression as an ingratiatory behavior. Academy of Management Review, 30(4), 765-776.

Hayes, A. F. (2009). Beyond Baron and Kenny: Statistical mediation analysis in the new millennium. Communication Monographs, 76, 408-420.

Ho, D. Y. F. (1974). On the Concept of Face. The American Journal of Sociology, 81, 867-884.

Ho, D. Y. F. (1994). Face dynamics: Form conceptualization to measurement. In S. Ting-Toomey (Ed.), The challenge of facework: Cross-cultural and interpersonal issues (pp. 269-286). New York: State University of New York.

Hu, H. C. (1944). The Chinese concepts of 'face'. American Anthropologist, 46(1), 45-64.

Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1-55.

Hwang, K. K. (1987). Face and favor: The Chinese power game. The American Journal of Sociology, 92(2), 944-974.

Jones, E. E. (1964). Ingratiation: A social psychological analysis. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Jones, E. E., & Wortman, C. (1973). Ingratiation: An attributional approach. Morristown: General Learning Press.

Joy, A. (2001). Gift giving in Hong Kong and the continuum of social ties. The Journal of Consumer Research, 28(2), 239-256.

King, A. Y. C. (1992). Guanxi and network construction: A sociological analysis. Economy and Society, 8, 143-157. (in Chinese).

King, A. Y. C. (2006). Face, Shame and the Analysis of Behavior Patterns of the Chinese. Chinese Social Psychological Review, 2, 48-64. (in Chinese).

Kipnis, A. (1997). Producing guanxi: Sentiment, self, and subculture in a north China village. Burham: Duke University Press.

Kline, R. B. (1998). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: The Guilford Press.

Liden, R. C., & Mitchell, T. R. (1988). Ingratiatory behaviors in organizational settings. Academy of Management Review, 13(4), 572-587.

Lin, N., Chih, F. Y., Jou, C. C., & Lai, G. (2002). The wedding banquet: Social capital in action in the Chinese context. Paper presented at the XV World Congress of the International Sociological Association, Brisbane, Australia.

Pandey, J. (1981). Ingratiation tactics in India. The Journal of Social Psychology, 113, 147-148.

Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods(40), 879-891.

Qian, W., Razzaque, M. A., & Keng, K. A. (2007). The Chinese cultural values and gift-giving behavior. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 24, 214-228.

Ralston, D. A. (1985). Employee ingratiation: The role of management. Academy of Management Review, 10(3), 477-487.

Rosenfeld, P., Giacalone, R. A., & Riordan, C. A. (1995). Impression management in organizations: Theory, measurement, practice. London: Routledge.

Strutton, D., & Pelton, L. E. (1998). Effects of ingratiation on lateral relationship quality within sales team settings. Journal of Business Research, 43, 1-12.

Strutton, D., Pelton, L. E., & Lumpkin, J. R. (1995). Sex differences in ingratiatory behavior: An investigation of influence tactics in the salesperson - customer dyad. Journal of Business Research, 34, 34-45.

Strutton, D., Pelton, L. E., & Tanner, J. F. J. (1996). Shall we gather in the garden: The effect of ingratiatory behaviors on buyer trust in salespeople. Industrial Marketing Management, 25(3), 151-162.

Tedeschi, J. T., & Melburg, V. (1984). Impression management and influence in the organization. In S. B. Bacharach & E. J. Lawler (Eds.), Research in the sociology of organization (Vol. 3, pp. 31-58). Greenwich: JAI Press.

Tsang, K. K. (2007). A research proposal: The effects of organizational culture, machiavellianism, and the sense of guanxi on ingratiation in workplace Retrieved 3rd Decembe, 2009, from http://dspace.cityu.edu.hk/handle/2031/5119

Tsang, K. K. (2009a). Ingratiation among Hong Kong Youth. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 15, 277-288. doi: 10.1080/02673843.2009.9748033

Tsang, K. K. (2009b). Ingratiation practices among Chinese from a guanxi perspective. Hong Kong Journal of Social Sciences, 37, 39-73. (in Chinese).

Tsang, K. K. (2010). Discussing ingratiation. Fuzhou Fine Arts Academy, 80, 11-13. (in Chinese).

Tsang, K. K., & Lian, Y. (2010). The impacts of ingratiation on interpersonal attraction and interpersonal relation of Hong Kong youth. Journal of Youth Studies, 13(2), 165-177. (in Chinese).

Varma, A., Toh, S. M., & Pichler, S. (2006). Ingratiation in job applications: Impact on selection decision. Journal of Management Psychology, 21(3), 200-210.

Yang, C. F. (1988). Value Change and Giving Gift. In K. S. Yang (Ed.), Chinese Psychology (pp. 386-388). Taibei: Gui Guan Press. (in Chinese).

Yang, C. F. (1999). The conceptualization of interpersonal relation and feeling. Indigenous Psychological Research in Chinese Societies, 12, 105-179. (in Chinese).

Yang, C. F., & Peng, S. (2005). Renqing and guanxi in social relationship. In K. S. Yang, K. K. Hwang & C. F. Yang (Eds.), Chinese indigenized psychology (pp. 483-520). Taibei: Yuan Liu Press. (in Chinese).

Yang, K. S. (1995). Chinese social orientation: An integrative analysis. In T. Y. Lin, W. S. Tseng & E. K. Yeh (Eds.), Chinese societies and mental health (pp. 19-39). Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.

Yu, B. C. (1993). Instrumental renqing and affective renqing: A case study of a public-enterprise in Taiwan. Journal of Social Sciences, 41, 87-120. (in Chinese).

Zhai, X. (1995). Chinese concept of face: A study of indigenous social psychology. Taibei: Gui Guan Press. (in Chinese).

Zhai, X. (2005). The reproduction of renqing, mianzi and power. Peking: Peking University Press. (in Chinese).

Zhai, X. (2011). The principles of Chinese guanxi: Time-space order, life desire and their changes. Peking: Peking University Press. (in Chinese).


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.