Parasites, haematology and morphological changes in tissues of a migratory Bubulcus Ibis
Keywords:Cattle egret, Migratory birds, Parasites, Histopathological lesions, Haematology
Cattle egret having been used in the control of flies and other insects on cattle also has been implicated in the transmission of different diseases including parasites. This migratory bird was studied to see the type of parasites it carries and its hematologic status as an indicator of health. The bird was found, caught and brought to the Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology of the University for Routine Helminth Ova and Protozoan cyst screening using parasitological techniques. Also, tissues were harvested for histopathological examination. Haematologic and clinical chemistry analysis was carried out. Clinically, the bird showed emaciation, dissipation and inability to fly.
No helminth ova or protozoan cysts were recovered from faecal examination, however, Heterakis gallinarum and Echinostoma species were recovered as adults from the posterior guts. Grossly, most of the organs were within the normal textural and conformational limits, except for the liver, which showed moderate congestion and enlargement. Microscopically, the liver revealed congestion of the venules, moderate distortion of the hepatic plates, swollen hepatocytes and obliteration of the sinusoid. The presence of the nematode, Heterakis gallinarum, has an implication on disease transmission to domestic birds while Echinostoma species are zoonotic thus humans can be predisposed to infection from these migratory birds. The haematology report is an indication of poor health due to its lower margin of normal values. An understanding of the parasites and lesions in the bird would aid evaluating the health status of the migratory bird and the public health implication of its presence.
Abdo, W., Sultan, K., 2013. Histopathological findings of the kidney Trematoda Paratanaisia spp. (Digenea: Eucotylidae) in cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis). Rev. Bras. Parasitol. Vet., Jaboticabal. 22(2), 312-313.
Abdu, P.A., 2010. Qualitative risk assessment on the transmission of HPAI (H5N1) virus from backyard and medium-scale commercial farms to household free-range poultry in Nigeria. Pro-poor HPAI Risk Reduction Project. Africa/Indonesia Team Working Paper. ILRI/IFPRI/RVC.
Acetate on the white blood cell counts of 2 weeks - old chickens. Poult. Sci. 40, 1537 – 1539.
Ali, N., 2002. The book of Indian birds. 13th ed. Bombay Natural History Society & Oxford University Press.
Anderson, R.M., May, R.M., 1991. Infectious diseases of humans: Dynamics and control. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Bell, D.J., Freeman, M.B., 1971. The blood of avian species. Physiology and biochemistry of the domestic fowl. 2nd Edn. Churchill, London.
Blakar, B.R., 1969. Behavior of the Cattle egret. Ostrich. 40(3), 75-129.
Carpenter, F.L., 1975. Bird hematocrits: Effects of high altitude and strength of flight. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 50, 415-417.
Chaturvedi, N., 1993. Dietary of the Cattle egret Bubulcus ibis coromandus (Boddaert). J. Bombay. Nat. Hist. Soc. 90(1), 90.
Dutta, P., Khan, S.A., Khan, A.M., Borah, J., Sarmah, C.K., Mahanta, J., 2011. The effect of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITMNs) on Japanese encephalitis virus seroconversion in pigs and humans. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 84, 466-472.
Elliott, R.H., Smith, E.E., Bush, M., 1974. Preliminary report on hematology of birds of prey. J. Zoo. Anita. Med. 5, 11-16.
Esquenet, C., De Herdt, P., De Bosschere, H., Ronsmans, S., Ducatelle, R., Van Erum, J., 2003. An outbreak of histomoniasis in free-range layer hens. Avian. Pathol. 32, 305-308.
Fogarty, M.J., Hetrick, W.M., 1973. Summer foods of cattle egrets in north central Florida. The Auk. 90(2), 268–280.
Friend, M., 2006. Disease emergence and resurgence: the wildlife-human connection. U.S. Geological Survey Circular No. 1285. Reston, VA. 400.
Gessaman, J.A., Johnson, J.A., Hoffman, S.W., 1986. Hematocrits and erythrocyte numbers for Cooper's and sharp-shinned hawks. Condor. 88, 95-96.
Gibbs, B.J., 1962. The occurrence of the protozoan parasite Histomonas Meleagridis in the adults and eggs of the cecal worm Heterakis gallinae. J. Proto. 9, 288-293.
Glick, B., 1960. The effect of bovine growth hormone desoxycorticosterone, and cortisone
Hernandez, M., Martin, S., Fores, P., 1990. Clinical hematology and blood chemistry values for the common buzzard (buteo buteo). J. Raptor. Res. 24(4), 113-119. 41.Maxwell MH. Avian blood leucocyte responses to stress. World. Poult. Sci. 1993; 49, 34–43.
Ivory, A., 2013. Bubulcus ibis. Animal Diversity Web 2000 (Accessed November 9th, http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/2012/11/9/Bubulcus_ibis/Hudson.
Jain, N.C., 1986. Schalm’s veterinary hematology fourth edition, Lea and Febriger. Philadelphia.
Johnson, J., 1920. The life cycle of Echinostoma revolutum (Froelich). Univ. California. Public. 19, 335-388.
Kaushik, R.K., Deorani, V.P., 1969. Studies on tissue responses in primary and subsequent infections with Heterakis gallinae in chickens and on the process of formation of caecal nodules. J. Helminthol. 43, 69-78.
Khin-khin, L., 2007. Prevalence of Cryptosporidia, giardia, and other gastrointestinal parasites of dairy calves in Mandalay, Myannar. MPh Thesis. Chuang Mai University and Frere Universiat Berlin.
Kurt, M., Acici, M., 2008. Cross-sectional survey on helminth infections of chickens in the Samsun region, Turkey. Deutsche Tiera¨ rztliche Wochenschrift. 115, 239-242.
Lund, E.E., Chute, A.M., 1974. The reproductive potential of Heterakis gallinarum in various species of Galliform birds: implications for survival of H. Gallinarum and Histomonas Meleagridis to recent times. Int. J. Parasitol. 4, 455-461.
Lund, E.E., Chute, A.M., Myers, S.L., 1970. Performance in chickens and turkeys of chicken-adapted Heterakis Gallinarum. J. Helmint. 44, 97-106.
Maurer, V., Amsler, Z., Perler, E., Heckendorn, F., 2009. Poultry litter as a source of gastrointestinal helminth infections. Vet. Parasitol. 161, 255 -260.
Mungube, E.O., Bauni, S.M., Tenhagen, B.A., Wamae, L.W., Nzioka, S.M., Muhammed, L., Nginyi, J.M., 2008. Prevalence of parasites of the local scavenging chickens in a selected semi-arid zone of Eastern Kenya. Trop. Anim. Health. Prod. 40, 101_109.
Permin, A., Bisgaard, M., Frandsen, F., Pearman, M., Kold, J., Nansen, P., 1999. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in different poultry production systems. Br. Poult. Sci. 40, 439-44.
Perry, M.C., Obrecht, H.H., Williams, B.K., Kuenzel, W.J., 1986. Blood chemistry and hematocrit of captive and wild canvasbacks. Wildl. Manage. 50, 435-441.
Rej, R., Hoder, M., 1983. Aspartate transaminase. In: Methods of enzymatic analysis. 3rd ed. (Bergmeyer HU, Bergmeyer J and Grassl M, Eds). WeinheinVerlag-Chemie. 3, 416-433.
Riddell, C., Gajadhar, A., 1988. Cecal and hepatic granulomas in chickens associated with Heterakis Gallinarum infection. Avian. Dis. 32, 836-838.
Russo, E.A., Mgentee, L., Applegate, L., Baker, J.S., 1986. Comparison of two methods for determination of white blood cell counts in macaws. JAVMA. 189, 1013-1016.
Seedikkoya, K., Azeez, P.A., Abdul Shukkur, E.A., 2007. Cattle egret as a biocontrol agent. Zoos' Print Journal.22 (10), 2864–2866.
Sheldon, F.H., 1987. Phylogeny of herons estimated from DNA-DNA hybridization data. The Auk. 104(1), 97-108.
Sibley, C.G., Ahlquist, J.E., 1972. A comparative study of the egg white proteins of non-passerine birds. Yale Univ. Peabody. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. 39.
Siegfried, W.R., 1971. The food of the cattle Egret. J. App. Ecol. 8(2), 447–468.
Siegfried, W.R., 1972. Aspects of feeding ecology of cattle egret in South Africa. J. Anim. Ecol. 41(71-78).
Smith, E.E., Bush, M., 1978. Haematologic parameters on various species of Strigiformes and Falconiformes. J. Wildl. Dis. 14, 447-450.
Springer, W.T., Johnson, J., Reid, W.M., 1969. Transmission of histomoniasis with male Heterakis Gallinarum (Nematoda). Parasit. 59, 401-405.
Wolford, J.H., Ringer, R.K., 1962. Adrenal eight, adrenal ascorbic acid, and adrenalcholesterol and differential leukocyte counts as physiological indicators of stressor agents in laying hens. Poult. Sci. 41, 1521-1529.
Yadav, E.S., Tindall, B.D.N., 2000. All India network project on agricultural ornithology: Annual report. Gujara. Agr. Univ. Anand. 1-14.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 O.A. Adediran, A.J. Jubril, E.C. Uwalaka, T.A. Jarikre
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.