Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access
Cover Image

Effect of microwave heating time on some bioactive compounds of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and dill (Anethum graveolens) leaves

Sahar Mostafa Kamel


The aim of this study was to assess the effect of microwave heating time on some bioactive compounds of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and dill (Anethum graveolens) leaves. Water blended parsley and dill were heated for one, two and three min. Total phenols, chlorophyll, carotenoids, antioxidant activity and color indices were determined before and after treatment. Dill leaves had higher total phenols, chlorophyll, carotenoid and antioxidant activity (1287.00 mg / 100g, 33.97 mg/kg, 45.98 mg/kg and 48.14%, respectively) than parsley leaves (1031.39 mg / 100g, 32.47 mg/kg, 40.00mg/kg and 40.10%, respectively). Total phenols and antioxidants activity of water blended parsley leaves were decreased after 2 min by 32.4 and 8%, as well as after 3 min by 80.2 and 38.27% respectively compared to the unheated sample. Meanwhile, total phenols and antioxidants activity of dill sample recorded 23.7and 30.3% decrease after 2 min reached to 33.0 and 54.8% after 3 min. This work indicated that most of the bioactive compounds of parsley and dill were stable only after one min of microwave heating, however, after 3 min of heating a marked decrease was observed in the tested parameters.


Ahmed S, Beigh, S.H., 2009. Ascorbic acid, Carotenoids, Total Phenolic content and Antioxidant activity of various genotypes of Brassica Oleracea encephala. J. Med. Biol. Sci., 3, 1-8.

Ahmed, J., Shivhare, U.S., Debnath, S., 2002. Colour degradation and rheology of green chilli puree during thermal processing. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 37, 57.

Albi, T., Lanzón, A., Guinda, A., Léon, M., and Pérez-Camino, M.C., 1997a. Microwave and conventional heating effects on thermoxidative degradation of edible fats. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 45, 3795–3798.

Albi, T., Lanzón, A., Guinda, A., Pérez-Camino, M.C., Léon, M., 1997b, Microwave and conventional heating effects on some physical and chemical parameters of edible fats. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 45, 3000–3003.

Annamalai, A., Ponmari, G., Sathishkumar, R., Lakshmi, P.T.V., 2011. Effect of drying treatment on the contents of antioxidants in Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences 2, 304 – 313.

Bejar, A.K., Kechaou N., Mihoubi N.P., 2011. Effect of microwave treatment on physical and functional properties of orange (Citrus sinensis) peel and leaves. Journal of Food Processing and Technology. 2, 109-115.

Boyer J., Hai Liu, R., 2004. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits. Nutrition Journal. 3, 1−15.

Cieslik, E., Greda, A. and Adamus, W. 2006. Contents of polyphenols in fruit and vegetables. Food Chemistry 94, 135–142.

Cossignani, L., Simonette, M.S., Neri, A., Damiani, P., 1998. Changes in olive oil composition due to microwave heating. Journal of American Oil Chemists’Society 75, 931–937.

Duthie, G.G., Gardner, P.T., Kyle, J.A.M., 2003. Plant polyphenols: are they the new magic bullet”, Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 62, 599–603.

Dwivedy, S., Rayaguru, K., Sahoo, G.R., 2012. Effect of Drying Methods on Quality Characteristics of Medicinal Indian Borage (Coleus aromaticus) Leaves. J Food Process Technol 3, 188.

Gahler, S., Otto, K., Bohm, V., 2003. Alterations of vitamin C, total phenolics, and antioxidant capacity as affected by processing tomatoes to different products. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 51, 7962–7968.

Gorinstein, S., Jastrzebski, Z., Leontowicz, H., Leontowicz, M., Namiesnik, J., and Najman, K., 2009. Comparative control of the bioactivity of some frequently consumed vegetables subjected to different processing conditions. Food Control 20, 407–413.

Hassanein, M.M., El-Shami, S.M., El-Mallah, M.H., 2003. Changes occurring in vegetable oils composition due to microwave heating. Grasas y Aceites 54, 343–349.

Ihl, M., Monslaves, M., Bifani, V., 1998. Chlorophyllase inactivation as a measure of blanching efficacy and colour retention of Artichokes (Cynara scolymus L.). Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie, 31, 50-56.

Jimenez-Monreal, A.M., García-Diz, L., Martínez-Tomé, M., Mariscal, M., Murcia M.A., 2009. Influence of cooking methods on antioxidant activity of vegetables. Journal of Food Science.74, 97–103.

Krinsky, N.I., 1989. Antioxidant functions of carotenoids. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 7, 617-635.

Little, R.C., Milliken, G.A., Stroup, W.W., Wolfinger, R.D., 1996. SAS Systems forbMixed Models. Cary, NC, SAS Institute Inc.

Lombaert, G.A., Siemens, K.H., Pellaers, P., Mankotia, M., Ng, W., 2001. Furanocoumarins in celery and parsnips: method and multiyear Canadian survey. Journal of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists Intternational 84, 1135-1143.

Malheiro, R., Oliveira, I., Vilas-Boas, M., Falcão, S., Bento, A., Pereira, J.A., 2009. Effect of microwave heating with different exposure times on physical and chemical parameters of olive oil. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 47, 92-97.

Mimica-Dukic, N., Popovic, M., 2007. Apiaceae Species. A promising sources of pharmacologically active compounds and Petrosellinum crispum, Apium greveolens and Pastinaca sativa. In Recent Progress in Medicinal Plant Species; Govil, J.N., Singh, V.K., Eds.; Phytopharmacology and Therapeutic Values III, LLC: Houston, TX, USA, Volume 21, pp. 132-133.

Mosquera, M.M.L., Rejano, N.L., Gandul, R.B., Sánchez, G.A., Garrido, F.J., 1991. Color pigment correlation in virgin olive oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 68, 332–336.

Oboh, G., 2005. Effect of blanching on the antioxidant property of some tropical green leafy vegetables. Lebensm Wiss Technol. 38, 513-517.

Oboh, G., Akindahunsi, A.A., 2004. Change in the ascorbic acid, total phenol and antioxidant activity of some sun-dried green leafy vegetables in Nigeria. Nutrition and Health 18, 29-36.

Oboh, G., Rocha, J.B.T., 2007. Antioxidant in Foods: A New Challenge for Food processors. Leading Edge Antioxidants Research, Nova Science Publishers Inc. New York US, pp. 35-64.

Pellegrini, N., Chiavaro, E., Gardana, C., Contino, D., Gallo, M., Riso, P., Fogliano, V., Porrini, M., 2010. Effect of Different Cooking Methods on Color, Phytochemical Concentration, and Antioxidant Capacity of Raw and Frozen Brassica Vegetables Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58, 4310–4321

Rehman, Z.U., Islam, M., Shah, W.H. 2003. Effect of microwave and conventional cooking on insoluble dietary fibre components of vegetables. Food Chemistry 80, 237-240

Rock, C.L., Lovalvo, J.L., Emenhise, C., Ruffin, M.T., Flatt, S.W., Schwartz, S.J., 1998. Bioavailability of b-carotene is lower in raw rather than in processed carrots and spinach in women. Journal of Nutrition 128, 913–916.

Rocha, T., Lebert, A., Marty-Audouin, C., 1993. Effect of pre-treatments and drying conditions on drying rate and colour retention of basil. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie 26, 456-463.

Tian, J., Ban, X., Zong, H., Huang, B., He, J., Wang, Y., 2011. In vitro and in vivo activity of essential oil from dill (Anethum graveolens L.) against fungal spoilage of cherry tomatoes, Food Control, 22, 1992–1999.

Turkmen, N., Poyrazoglu, E.S., Sari, F., Velioglu, Y.S., 2006. Effects of cooking methods on chlorophylls, pheophytins and color of selected green vegetables. International Journal of Food Science and Technology.41, 281–288.

Turkmen, N., Sari, F., Velioglu, S., 2005. The effect of cooking methods on total phenolics and antioxidant activity of selected green vegetables. Food Chemistry. 93, 713–718.

Wachtel-Galor, S., Wong, K.W., Benzie, I.F.F., 2008. The effect of cooking on Brassica vegetables. Food Chemistry 110, 706–710.

Yen, G. C., Duh P. D. and Tsai H. L. 2002. Antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of ascorbic acid and gallic acid. Food Chemistry, 79, 307–313.

Yoshida, H., Hirooka, N., and Kajimoto, G. 1990. Microwave energy effects on quality of some seed oils. Journal of Food Science 55, 1412-1416.

Zhang, D., and Hamauzu, Y. 2004. Phenolics, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and antioxidant activity of broccoli and their changes during conventional and microwave cooking. Food Chemistry. 88, 503-509.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.