Compositional quality of milk and its seasonal variation in Jersey cows of Zimbabwe


  • Never Assan Department of Agriculture Management, Zimbabwe Open University, Bulawayo Regional Campus, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.
  • Brian Takwana Moyo Department of Animal Science, Gwanda State University, Filabusi, Zimbabwe.
  • Busani Moyo Department of Animal Science, Gwanda State University, Filabusi, Zimbabwe.


Jersey cows, Season, Protein, Fat, Lactose, Total solid, Solid not fat, Milk urea nitrogen


The compositional quality of milk is the outcome of the synergy of various biological processes within the cow and its external environment. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of season on the compositional quality of milk in Jersey cows of Zimbabwe. The study material consisted of 813 records of a total of 60 head of Jersey cows collected from a commercial dairy farm in Matabeleland South province in Zimbabwe. For the analysis three seasons were defined: 1-Warm Wet (December-March), 2-Dry Cool (April-August), and 3- dry hot (August-November). Chemical compositions (fat, protein, lactose, SNF, salt) as well as the freezing point, density of collected milk samples were carried out by using the Milk Analyzer (Lactoscan, UK). Statistical data processing was carried out by applying the General Linear Model procedure, SAS system (1999). Duncan multiple range test was used to compare the means within a group, difference was considered as significant if (P0.05) and the results were presented as Mean±SE. The mean fat percent were 4.94±0.05, 4.62±0.08, and 4.56±0.05, and mean protein percent were 3.72±0.02, 3.50±0.03, and 3.49±0.03 for warm wet season(December-March) dry cool season (April-August), and dry hot (August=November), respectively. The warm wet season had maximum milk urea nitrogen (17.24 ±0.54mg/dl) while the dry cool season (April-August) had the minimum milk urea concentration of 12.38±0.82. The results showed that milk collected in the warm wet season (December-March) had significantly higher fat and protein as compared to dry cool season(April-August) and dry hot (August=November). However, no seasonal variation was evident in total milk solids (TS; %), solids non-fat (SNF, %), and milk density. Moreover, lactose (4.74%) contents were high in the dry hot season (August-November), while maximum milk urea nitrogen content (17.24%) was observed in the wet warm season. The mean concentration of milk urea nitrogen in the study of 14.84±4.60 mg/dl indicates a good balance of energy and protein in the diet. Fat, protein, lactose, and milk urea nitrogen contents of milk significantly varied with the season. Synchronous changes in protein and fat percent in raw milk were much more distinct as the season progresses through the wet and dry season.


Abeni, F., Calamari, L., Maianti, M.G., Cappa, V., Stefanini, L., 1993. Effetti dello stress termico sulle bovine in lattazione ed accorgimenti alimentari miranti ad attenuarne l’impatto su quantità e qualità del latte prodotto. Annali. Fac. Agr., UCSC 33, 151-170.

Anantakrishnan, C.P., Khan, A.Q., Padmanabhan, P.N., 1993. The technology of milk processing, Shri Lakshmi Publications, Kilpauk, Madras. India.

Arunvipas, P., Dohoo, I.R., VanLeeuwen, J.A., Keefe, G.P., 2003. The effect of non-nutritional factors on milk urea nitrogen levels in dairy cows in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Prev. Vet. Med., 59(1), 83-93.

Ayub, M., Ahmad, Q., Abbas, M., Qazi, I., Khattak, I. M., Khattak, I.A., 2007. Composition and adulteration analysis of milk samples. Sarhad J. Agr., 23(4).

Azad, M.A.K., Hasanuzzaman, M., Miah, G., Roy, B.K., 2007. Milk production trend of milk vita throughout the year. Pakistan J. Nutr., 1(5), 236-240.

Bansal, B., Habib, B., Rebmann, H., Chen, X., 2009. Effect of seasonal variation in milk composition on dairy fouling. Proceeding of international conference on heat exchanger fouling and cleaning v11-2009 (peer-reviewed) June-14-19, Schladming, Austria.

Bartley, J.C., Abraham, S., Chaikoff, I.L., 1966. Biosynthesis of lactose by mammary gland slices from the lactating rat. J. Biol. Chem., 241, 1132-1137.

Baul, S., Cziszter, L.T., Acatincai, S., Tripon, I., Erina, S., Gavojdian, D., Marcu, A., 2014. Seasonal influences on milk yield and composition dynamics during a normal lactation in dairy cows. Milk lactose, solids non-fat, total dry matter percentage. Anim. Sci. Biotech., 47(2).

Bayril, T., Cimen, M., Tekelioglu, O., 2010. Biochemical flavor parameters of milk

in early lactation. Asian J. Chem., 22(2), 1529-1534.

Bergouignan, A., Momken, I., Lefai, E., Antoun, E., Schoeller, D.A., Platat, C., Chery, I., Zahariev, A., Vidal, H., Gabert, L., Normand, S., Freyssenet, D., Laville, M., Simon, C., St Blanc, P., 2013. Activity energy expenditure is a major determinant of dietary fat oxidation and trafficking, but the deleterious effect of detraining is more marked than the beneficial effect of training at current recommendations. Am. J. Clinical Nutr., 98(3), 648-658.

Bernabucci, U., Lacetera, N., Ronchi, B., Nardone, A., 2002. Effects of hot season on milk protein fractions in dairy cows. Anim. Res., 51, 25-33.

Bhatta, M., Das, D., Ghosh, P.R., 2014. The effect of ambient temperature on some biochemical profiles of Black Bengal goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) in two different agro-climatic zones in West Bengal, India. IOSR J. Pharma. Biol. Sci., 9(4), 32-36.

Bille, P.G., Haradoeb, B.R., Shigwedha, N., 2009. Evaluation of chemical and bacteriological quality of raw milk from Neudamm dairy farm in Namibia. Afr. J. Agr. Nutr. Dev., 9, 1511-1523.

Brodziak, A., Krol, J., Litwinczuk, Z., Barlowska, J., 2018. Differences in bioactive protein and vitamin status of milk from certified organic and conventional farms. Int. J. Dairy Tech., 71(2), 321-332.

Carlsson, J., Pehrson, B., 1994. The influence of dietary balance between energy and protein on milk urea concentration. Experimental trials assessed by two different protein evaluation systems. Acta Vet. Scand., 35, 193-205.

Carroll, S.M., DePeters, E.J., Taylor, S.J., Rosenberg, M., Perez-Monti, H., Capps, V.A., 2006. Milk composition of Holstein, Jersey, and Brown Swiss cows in response to increasing levels of dietary fat. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 131(3-4), 451-473.

Casati, M.R., Cappa, V., Calamari, L., Calegari, F., Folli, G., 1998. Effects of the season on milk yield and on some milk characteristics in cows. Scienza e Tecnica Lattiero-Casearia, 49, 17-25.

Chen, B., Lewis, M.J., Grandison, A.S., 2014. Effect of seasonal variation on the composition and properties of raw milk destined for processing in the UK. Food Chem., 158, 216-223.

Cheruiyot, E.K., Rawlynce, B.C., Joshua A.O., Fidalis, M.D.N., 2018. Milk composition, breed type, genetic group, genomic markers, SNP, Crossbred cows, Tanzania. J. Front. Gen., 9, 142.

Christie, W.W., 1979. The effects of diet and other factors on the lipid composition of ruminant tissues and milk. Prog. Lipid Res., 17, 245.

Cobanoglu, O., Kemal, G.E., Cankaya, S., Kul, E., Hasan, A.S., Ulker, M., 2017. Effects of lactation month and season on test-day milk yield and milk components in Holstein cows. Indian J. Anim. Res., 51, 952-955.

Cofani, L.G., Dos Santos, A., Nadai, F., Bacchi, M.A., Adria, G., Sarrie, S., Blumer, L., Barbosa, F.J., 2009. Chemical composition of bovine milk from Minas Gerais State, Brazil. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 282(22), 493-496.

Colombari, G., Borreani, G., Crovetto, GM., 1999. Comparison of Lucerne silage

and ventilated hay in maize silage - based ratios for dairy cows for the production of milk destined for Grana cheese. Grass Forage Sci., 54, 184.

Coppock, C.E., 1985. Energy nutrition and metabolism of the lactating cow. J. Dairy Sci., 68, 3403.

Cordeiro, C.F.A., Pereira, M.L.A., Mendonca, S.S., 2007. Consumo e digestibilidade total dos nutrientes e produção e composicao do leite de vacas alimentadas com teores crescentes de proteína bruta na dieta contendo cana-de-açúcar e concentrados. Rev. Brasil. Zootec., 36, 2118-2126.

Cowley, F.C., Barber, D.G., Houlihan, A.V., Poppi, D.P., 2015. Immediate and residual effects of heat stress and restricted intake on milk protein and casein composition and energy metabolism. J. Dairy Sci., 98, 2356-2368.

Day, K.A., Maclaurin, G., Dube, S., Hlatshwayo, A., Trevor, C., 2003. Capturing the benefits of seasonal climate forecasts in agricultural management. Final Rep. Austral. Cent. Int. Agr. Res., (ACIAR). June 2003. Sub Project 3- Grazing Systems in Zimbabwe, 67p.

Derese, T., 2008. Present situation of urban and peri urban milk production and quality of raw milk produced in west Shoa zone. Oromia region, Ethiopia, Haramaya University.

Desyibelew, W., Wondifraw, Z., 2019. Evaluation of milk composition in Zebu × HF crossbred dairy cows in different seasons and stage of lactations in Amanuel Town, Ethiopia J. Agr. Sci. Food Res., 10, 255.

Elgersma, A., Tamminga, S., Ellen, G., 2006. Modifying milk composition through forage. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 131, 207-222.

Elgersma, G., Ellen, H., van der Horst, H., Boer, P.R., Dekker, S., Tamminga, S., 2004. Quick changes in milk fat composition from cows after transition from fresh grass to a silage diet. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 17(1-2), 13-27.

Fatehi, F., Zali, A., Honarvar, M., Dehghan-banadaky, M., Young, A.J., Ghiasvand, M., Eftekhari, M., 2012. Review of the relationship between milk urea nitrogen and days in milk, parity, and monthly temperature mean in Iranian Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci., 95, 5156-5163.

Feltes, G.L., Michelotti, V.T., Prestes, A.M., Bravo, A.P., Bondan, C., Dornelles, M., de A Rorato, P.R.N., 2016. Milk production and percentages of fat and protein in Holstein breed cows raised in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Ciência Rural, 46(4), 700-706.

Fox, P.F., McSweeney, P.L.H., 1998. Dairy chemistry and biochemistry. Blackie Academic and Professional, London, UK.

Frelich, J., Slachta, M., Hanus, O., Spicka, J., Samkova, E., Weglarz, A., Zapletal, P., 2012. Anim. Sci. Paper. Rep., 30(3), 219-229.

Gambiza, J., Nyama, C., 2000. Country pasture/forage resource profiles. Country profiles, Zimbabwe. Food Agr. Organ. Unit. Nati.

Godden, S.M., Lissemore, K.D., Kelton, D.F., Leslie, K.E., Walton, J.S., Lumsden, J.H., 2001. Relationships between milk urea concentrations and nutritional management, production, and economic variables in Ontario Dairy Herds. J. Dairy Sci., 84, 1128-1139.

Gottardo, P., Penasa, M., Righi, F., Lopez-Villalobos, N., Cassandro, M., De Marchi, M., 2017. Fatty acid composition of milk from Holstein-Friesian, Brown Swiss, Simmental and Alpine Grey cows predicted by mid-infrared spectroscopy Ital. J. Anim. Sci., 16, 380-389.

Hammami, H., Vandenplas, J., Vanrobays, M.L., Rekik, B., Bastin, C., Gengler, N., 2015. Genetic analysis of heat stress effects on yield traits, udder health, and fatty acids of Walloon Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci., 98(7), 4956-68.

Haug, A., Hostmark, A.T., Harstad, O.M., 2007. Bovine milk in human nutrition: A review. Lipid. Health Dis., 6, 25-25.

Heck, J.M.L., Van Valenberg, H.J.F., Dijkstra, J., Van Hooijdonk, A.C.M., 2009. Seasonal variation in the Dutch bovine raw milk composition. J. Dairy Sci., 92, 4745-4755.

Hill, D.L., Wall, E., 2015. Dairy cattle in a temperate climate: the effects of weather on milk yield and composition depend on management. Anim., 9, 138-149.

Hoffmann, V.M., Steinhofel, O., 1990. Possibilities and limitations for appraisal of energy and protein supply through monitoring of mil urea level. Monatshefte für Veterinärmedizin, 45, 223-227.

Homann, S., van Rooyen, A.F., Moyo, T., Nengomahsa, Z., 2007. Goat production and marketing: Baseline information for semi-arid Zimbabwe. P.O. Box 776. Bulawayo, Zimbabwe: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. 84p.

Ibeawuchi, J.A., 1985. A study on variation of some milk constituents of Friesian cows at vom. Nig. J. Anim. Prod. Res., 5, 113-116.

Imran, M., Khan, H., Syed, S.H., Khan, R., 2008. Physicochemical characteristics of various milk samples available in Pakistan. J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci., B9(7), 546-551.

Ivankovic, A., Spehar, M., Konjacic, M., Ramljak, J., 2015. Effect of farm size, season and stage of lactation on milk urea concentration in Simmental cows // Proceedings and Abstracts Book of International Symposium on Animal Science 2015. Novi Sad: Faculty of Agriculture, 2015. str. 165-165.

Jenness, R., 1985. Biochemical and nutritional aspects of milk and colostrum. Ch. 5 in Lactation, B.L. Larson, editor., ed. Ames: Iowa State University Press.

Johnson, R.G., Young, A.J., 2003. The association between milk urea nitrogen and DHI production variables in Western commercial dairy herds. J. Dairy Sci., 86, 3008-3015.

Jonker, J.S., Kohn, R.A., Erdman, R.A., 1999. Milk urea nitrogen target concentrations for lactating dairy cows fed according to National Research Council recommendations. J. Dairy Sci., 82, 1261-1273.

Key, N., Sneeringer, S., Marquardt, D., 2014. Climate change, heat stress and U.S. dairy production. A Report Summary from the Economic Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture.

Knapp, D.M., Grummer, R.R., 1991. Response of lactating dairy cows to fat supplementation during heat stress. J. Dairy Sci., 74, 2573-2579.

Krol, J., Litwinczuk, Z., Brodziak, A., Sawicka-Zugaj, W., 2010. Bioactive protein content in milk from local breeds of cows included in the genetic resources conservation programme. Ann. Anim. Sci., 10, 213-221.

Kuhn, N.J., Carrick, D.T., Wilde, C.J., 1980. Lactose synthesis: the possibilities of regulation. J. Dairy Sci., 63, 328-336.

Lacetera, N., Bernabucci, U., Ronchi, B., Nardone, A., 2003. Physiological and productive consequences of heat stress: the case of dairy ruminants. In interactions between climate and animal production (eds. Lacetera, N. et al.) 45-59, Wageningen Academic Publishers, Netherlands.

Leaver, J.D., 1985. Milk production from grazed temperate grassland J. Dairy Res., 52, 313-344.

Liu, Z., Ezernieks, V., Wang, J., Arachchillage, N.W., Garner, J.B., Wales, W.J., Cocks, B.G., Rochfort, S., 2017. Heat stress in dairy cattle alters lipid composition of milk. Sci. Rep., 19, 7(1), 961.

Louwrens, E.S., SchoKnfeldt, H.C., de Beer, W.H.J., Smith, M.F., 2000. The effect of locality and season on the composition of South African whole milk. J. Food Comp. Analys., 13, 345-367.

Maha, H., Zaaraoui Linda, El Housni Abdellah, Bendaou Mohamed, Douaik Ahmed, Zouahri Abdelmajid, Ounine Khadija, Bouksaim Mohammed, 2016. Seasonal effect on bovine raw milk composition of oulmes local race in Morocco. Food Sci. Qual. Manag., 52.

Mansson, H.L., 2008. Fatty acids in bovine milk fat. Food Nutr. Res., 52.

Mapekula, M., Chimonyo, M., Mapiye, C., Dzama, K., 2011. Fatty acid, amino acid and mineral composition of milk from Nguni and local crossbred cows in South Africa. J. Food Comp. Anal., 24, 529-536.

Marenjak, T., Poljicak-Milas, N., Stojevic, Z., 2004. Svrha odredivanja koncentracije ureje u kravljem mlijeku. Praxis Vet., 52(3), 233-241.

Meyer, P.M., Machado, P.F., Coldebella, A., 2006. Fatores nao-nutricionais e concentracao de nitrogenio uréico no leite de vacas da raça Holandesa. Rev. Brasil. Zootec., 35, 1114-1121.

Milam, K.Z., Coppock, C.E., West, J.W., Lanham, J.K., Nave, D.H., Labore, J.M., Stermer, R.A., Brasington, C.F., 1986. Effects of drinking water temperature on production responses m lactating Holstein cows in summer. J. Dairy Sci., 69, 1013.

Mirzadeh, K.H., Masoudi, A., Chaji, M., Bojarpour, M., 2010. The composition of raw milk produced by some dairy farms in lordegan region of Iran. J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 9, 1582-1583.

Morales-Almaráz, E., De la Roza-Delgado, B., González, A., Soldado, A., Rodríguez, M.L., Peláez, M., Vicente, F., 2011. Effect of feeding system on unsaturated fatty acid levels in milk of dairy cows. Renew. Agr. Food Syst., 26, 224-229.

Myburgh, J., Osthoff, G., Hugo, A., de Wit, M., Nel, K., Fourie, D., 2012. Comparison of the milk composition of free-ranging indigenous African cattle breeds. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci., 42, 1-14.

Nóbrega, D.B., Langon, H., 2011. Breed and season influence on milk quality parameters and in mastitis occurrence. Pesq. Vet. Bras., 31(12), 1045-1052.

O’Callaghan, T.F.., Hennessy, D., McAuliffe, S., Kilcawley, K.N., O’Donovan, M., Dillon, P., Stanton, C., 2016. Effect of pasture versus indoor feeding systems on raw milk composition and quality over an entire lactation. J. Dairy Sci., 99, 9424-9440.

O’Connor, C.B., 1994. Rural dairy technology ILRI training manual. International Livestock Research Institute, Kenya.

Oltner, R., Emanuelson, M., Wiktorsson, H., 1985. Urea concentrations in milk in relation to milk yield, live weight, lactation number and amount and composition of feed given to dairy cows. Liv. Prod. Sci., 12, 47-57.

O'Mahony, F., 1998. Experiences in Ethiopia. ILCA Manual No. 4, International Livestock Centre for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Ozcan, T., Yaslioglu, E., Kilic, I., Simsek, E., 2015. The influence of the season and milking time on the properties and the fatty acid composition of the milk in different dairy cattle farms fatty acid composition of the milk. Mljekarstvo, 65(1), 9-17.

Painkra, S.K.S., 2007. Studies on milk composition of Sahiwal cows in Chhattisgarh. M.Sc. thesis submitted to Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (C.G.), India.

Payne, J.A., Payne, S., 1987. The metabolic profile test. New York: Oxford University Press.

Pina, D.S., Valadares Filho, S.C., Valadares, R.F.D., 2006. Síntese de proteína microbiana e concentrações de uréia em. Rev. Brasil. Zootec., 35, 1552-1559.

Ponka, R., Beaucher, E., Fokou, E., Kansci, G., Piot, M., Leonil, J., Gaucheron, F., 2013. Composition of raw cow milk and artisanal yoghurt collected in Maroua (Cameroon). Afr. J. Biotech., 12(49), 6866-6875.

Pougheon, S., et Goursaud, J., 2001. Le lait caractéristique physicochimiques in Debry G., Lait, Nutrition et Santé, Tec et Doc, Paris. 6, 566.

Poulsen, N.A., Gustavsson, F., Glantz, M., Paulsson, M., Larsen, L.B., Larsen, M.K., 2012. The influence of feed and herd on fatty acid composition in 3 dairy breeds (Danish Holstein, Danish Jersey, and Swedish Red). J. Dairy Sci., 95, 6362-6371.

Prathap Pragna, P.R., Archana, J.A., Sejian, V., Krishnan, G., Bagath, A.M., Manimaran V., Beena, Kurien, E.K., Varma, G., Bhatta, R., 2017. Heat stress and dairy cow: Impact on both milk yield and composition. Intern. J. Dairy Sci., 12, 1-11.

Raff, H., 2011. Market implications of changing fat content of milk and dairy products. Fat content and composition of animal products. J. Food Sci. Technol., 5, 6-17.

Rajala- Schultz, P.J., Saville, W.J.A., 2003. Sources of variation in milk urea nitrogen in Ohio dairy Herds. J. Dairy Sci., 86, 1653-1661.

Roman-Ponce, H., Thatcher, W.W., Buffington, D.E., Wilcox, C.J., Van Horn, H.H., 1977. Physiological and production responses of dairy cattle to a shade structure in a subtropical environment. J. Dairy Sci., 60, 424-430.

Roseler, D.K., Ferguson, J.D., Sniffen, C.J., Herrema, J., 1993. Dietary protein degradability effects on plasma and milk urea nitrogen and milk nonprotein nitrogen in Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci., 76, 525-534.

Ruska, D., Jonkus, D., 2014. Crude protein and non-protein nitrogen content in dairy cow milk. Rural Sustain. Res., 32(1), 36-40.

Sanz, C.L., Ramos, M.E., Adarve de la Torre, G., Castro, D.J., Martinez, P.L., Sanz, S.R.M., 2009. Composition of goat and cow milk produced under similar conditions and analyzed by identical methodology. J. Food Comp. Anal., 22, 322-329.

SAS (Statistical Analysis System), 1999. SAS Guide for Personal computers, Version 6.12. Inst., Inc., Cary, NC.

Saxena, M.M., Suman, C.L., Katpatal, B.G., Pandey, H.S., 1997. Study of milk constituents and their yields in Holstein Friesian cows. Indian J. Anim. Prod. Manag., 13, 127.

Schroeder, J.W., 2012. Dairy Cow Nutrition Affects Milk Composition

Soyeurt, H., Dehareng, F., Mayeres, P., Bertozzi, C., Gengler, N., 2008. Variation of 9-desaturase activity in dairy cattle J. Dairy Sci., 91, 3211-3224.

Stelwagen, K., 2020. Mammary gland, milk biosynthesis and secretion: Lactose: In book: Reference Module in Food Science.

Strzalkowska, N., Jozwik, A., Bagnicka, E., Krzyzewski, J., Cooper, R.G., Horbanczuk, J.O., 2010. Cholesterol content of cow milk in TMR system. Mljekarstvo, 60, 273-279.

Summer, A., Formaggioni, P., Tosi, F., Fossa, E., Marian, P., 1999. Effects of the hot-humid climate on rennet-coagulation properties of milk produced during summer months of 1998 and relationships with the housing systems in the rearing of Italian Friesian cows. Ann. Fac. Med. Vet. Univ. Parma., 19, 167-179.

Sutton, J.D., 1985. Digestion and absorption of energy substrates in the lactating cow. J. Dairy Sci., 68, 3376.

Tamime, A.Y., 2009. Milk processing and quality management. A John Wiley & Sons Ltd Publication. United Kingdom.

Teklemichael, T., 2012. Quality and safety of raw and pasteurized cow milk produced and marketed in Dire Dawa town. Haramaya University, Ethiopia.

Van Rooyen, A.F., Freeman, A., Moyo, S., Rohrback, D., 2007. Livestock development in southern Africa. Future Research and Investment Priorities. ICRISAT Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

Verma, D., Singh, R., Neeraj, 2018. Influence of season on quality of cow milk produced of organized and unorganized dairy farms of Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh. Int. Liv. Res., 8(7), 176-181.

Wangdi, J., Zangmo, T., Mindu, K., Bhujel, P., 2018. Compositional quality of cow’s milk and its seasonal variations in Bhutan. Livest. Res. Rural, 28(1).

Woolpert, M.E., Dann, H.M., Cotanch, K.W., Melilli, C., Chase, L.E., Grant, R.J., Barbano, D.M., 2017. Management practices, physically effective fiber, and ether extract are related to bulk tank milk de novo fatty acid concentration on Holstein dairy farms. J. Dairy Sci., 100(6), 5097-5106.

Wylie, C.E., 1925. The effect of season on the milk and fat production of Jersey cows. J. Dairy Sci., 8(2), 127-131.

Yildirim, S., Cimen, M., 2009. Biochemical factors affecting taste of milks from machine milking. Asian J. Chem., 21(3), 2457-2460.

Young, A., 2001. Milk urea nitrogen (MUN). Utah State University extension. files/publications/publication/AG_Dairy-01.pdf

Zaman, M.A., Ara, A., Haque, M.N., 2016. The effect of season on production and quality of milk of crossbred dairy cows at Sylhet district government dairy farm in Bangladesh. Bang. J. Anim. Sci., 45(3), 52-57.

Zeinhom, M.M.A., Aziz, R.L.A., Mohammed, A.N., Bernabucci, U., 2016. Impact of seasonal conditions on quality and pathogens content of milk in Friesian cows. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci., 29(8), 1207-1213.



How to Cite

Assan, N., Takwana Moyo, B. . ., & Moyo, B. (2022). Compositional quality of milk and its seasonal variation in Jersey cows of Zimbabwe. Scientific Journal of Animal Science, 10(1), 684-698. Retrieved from



Original Article

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>