Scientific Journal of Animal Science <p>The Scientific Journal of Animal Science (SJAS)is an international peer-reviewed journal publishing original scientific papers, reviews and short communications on animal science, animal production and related areas. It includes sections on: animal derived food quality; reproduction and physiology (ruminants and non-ruminants); animal production (management, behaviour, welfare, health); nutrition and feeding (ruminant and non-ruminant); genetics (quantitative and molecular) and breeding; aquaculture.</p> Sjournals en-US Scientific Journal of Animal Science 2322-1704 Crossbreeding and genetic loss in domestic animal resources in rural communities in Africa <p>Africa is abundantly graced with an excess of domestic animal genetic resources that have adapted to the continent’s existing stressful conditions (Scholtz, 2005). Now, most momentous concern is the impending loss of domestic animal genetic resources that are threatened by increased uncontrolled crossbreeding with exotic genotypes. The resource poor rural animal agriculture systems in Africa has relied on these domestic animal genetic resources and they have proved beyond doubt their resilience under local prevailing conditions. Due to pressure of modern trends in livestock and poultry production systems and practices, there has been a mismatch on domestic animal genetic resources utilization and conservation sustainability. The imposition of highly intensified animal production practices has been associated with dominance of very high producing exotic animal genetic resources facilitating indiscriminate crossbreeding with domestic animal genetic resources in rural Africa. This has been implemented without taking into account that predicted changes in climate will impose selection pressures on traits significant for biological fitness (and production) and adaptability.&nbsp; The new focus has downplayed the contribution of domestic animal biodiversity has yet to be properly integrated into strategies for adaptation to and mitigation of climate change and variability consequences. It is imperative that domestic animal genetic resources’ role in the resilience of rural animal production systems in Africa still need to be promoted. Domestic livestock and poultry species in Africa are unique animal genetic resources which need to be safeguarded under the pending unpredictable climate change and variability and the rapid changing world. The modern trends which emphasize on productivity undermines the element of genetic adaptation enshrined in domestic animal genetic resources which is vital for future of Africa’s animal agriculture. As a consequence, domestic animal genetic diversity is diminishing drastically due to indiscriminate crossing of exotic with the domestic animal genetic population. To arrest this erosion or population decline focus should be to promote domestic animal genetic resources in situ avoiding the replacement approach and include maintaining adaptation as part of any animal breeding strategies on domestic animal genetic resources utilization practices in Africa. The review looks at the influence of crossbreeding exotic animal genetic resources with domestic animal genetic resources as the major driver of animal genetic loss in Africa.</p> Never Assan Copyright (c) 2020 Scientific Journal of Animal Science 2020-03-18 2020-03-18 9 3 571 577 Consumer awareness and preference to spices used in meat products <p>Spices are parts of plants used for their properties to preserve, colour or as medicine. Spices used in processed meat products were identified, described and studied for consumer awareness and preference. Information was obtained through a survey of processed meat product producers, spice merchants and processed meat consumers in Sokoto metropolis. Cluster sampling was used to select spice merchants in Sokoto central market. Snowball and multistage sampling were used to select the processed meat products producers and consumers respectively. The spices identified were ginger, garlic, chilli, nutmeg, black pepper, cloves and alligator pepper. The proportion of the spices used in a spice mix was found to follow the order ginger&gt;chilli&gt;garlic&gt;nutmeg&gt; black pepper &gt;cloves and alligator pepper. Awareness and preference of spices were found to follow the order ginger&gt;garlic&gt;nutmeg&gt; black pepper &gt;cloves&gt;chilli&gt; alligator pepper. Preference for spices differed (P&lt;0.05) in all except for chilli and cloves (P&gt;0.05) which were preferred equally. There was a positive relationship between awareness and preference.</p> Musa Bako Muhammad Mu'awiyya Jibir Kafayat Yetunde Hamza Sani Garba Copyright (c) 2020 Scientific Journal of Animal Science 2020-03-14 2020-03-14 9 3 565 570 Growth performances of broiler chickens fed on palm kernel meal based diet supplemented with spirulina and amino acids <p>This study was assigned to assess the effect palm kernel meal as protein source in broiler chickens diet. The experimental rations consisted of replacing soybean meal by palm kernel meal at the rates of 50, 75 and 100 percent supplemented with lysine-methionine and spirulina and a control ration without palm kernel meal. The main results revealed that, all the growth parameters decreased with increasing rate of substitution of soybean meal with palm kernel meal. Compared to the control ration containing soybean meal as main protein source, feed conversion ratio increased by 25.97; 39.39 and 71.43 % with lysine-methionine mixture and by 40.34; 53.22 and 62.66% with spirulina in rations containing 50, 75 and 100 % palm kernel meal respectively. Carcass yield globally decreased, with the exception of carcass yields with 75% palm kernel meal supplemented with lysine-methionine that increased by 3.48 % compared to the control ration. The relative weight of the legs, head and digestive organs increased with increasing rate of palm kernel meal in feed regardless of the supplement. The lowest cost of production was recorded with spirulina compared to lysine-methionine regardless of the level of incorporation of palm kernel meal in feed. In conclusion, using large quantities of palm kernel meal even enriched with amino acids or proteins rich resources is not profitable to broiler chickens.</p> Divine Doriane Yemdjie Mane Ruben Ngouana Tadjong Jean Raphaël Kana Vanessa Mafouo Sonhafouo Agwah Ebile Dayan Alexis Teguia Copyright (c) 2020 Scientific Journal of Animal Science 2020-03-20 2020-03-20 9 3 578 586 Effects of supplementing graded levels of methenamine in drinking water on growth performance, gut microbiota, organs histology and haemato-biochemical profile of broiler chickens <p>The residual effects of antibiotics in meat products can induce resistance to pathogens that may lead to health problems to the consumers. In this regard, much attention has been paid towards growth activators order than antibiotics in livestock breeding. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of graded levels of methenamine in drinking water on growth performances of broiler chickens. A total of 72 three-weeks old sexed broiler chicks were assigned to six experimental treatments in a completely randomized design. Methenamine was incorporated at 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 g per liter of water and compared to an antibiotic medicated diet as positive control and to a ration without any supplement as negative control. Feed intake significantly (p&lt;0.05) increased in birds fed on methenamine compared to the positive control diet, while live body weight and weight gain of broiler fed 1.5 g and 2 g methenamine/L were significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher compared to the negative control diet. Feed conversion ratio significantly (p&lt;0.05) decreased with 2 g methenamine/l compared to the negative control diet. Inclusion of 1 to 2 g methenamine/L significantly (p&lt;0.05) increased coliform counts compared to the positive control diet, while&nbsp;<em>salmonella</em>&nbsp;count significantly (p&lt;0.05) decreased with 1 and 1.5 g methenamine/L. The serum content in ASAT, ALAT, Urea, total cholesterol and HDL- cholesterol were significantly (p&lt;0.05) affected irrespective of the inclusion level of methenamine compared to the negative control diet. RBC, Hgb, MCH and PLT respectively increased significantly (p&lt;0.05) with 1.5 g and 2 g methenamine /L while MCV, MCHC and PCV decreased (p&lt;0.05) irrespective of the level of incorporation of methenamine in drinking water compared to the negative control treatment. In conclusion methenamine can be incorporated up to 2 g/L of drinking water to improve growth without any adverse effects on haemato-biochemical profile and organs histology of broilers chickens.</p> Guyssela Josiane Kengni Noubissie Jean Raphaël Kana Ruben Ngouana Tadjong Agwah Ebile Dayan Gilchrist Tchouan Deffo Boris Valdes Necdem Tsafack Langston Wilfried Edie Nounamo Copyright (c) 2020 Scientific Journal of Animal Science 2020-03-22 2020-03-22 9 3 587 598 Effects of crude cowpea (Vigna unculata) meal supplemented with enzyme on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of broiler chickens <p>This study was designed to assess the digestibility of feed components and the growth performances of broilers fed on raw Cowpea based diet supplemented with fibrolytic enzyme (Naturzyme®). A control ration without Cowpea and enzyme was compared to six others rations in which raw cowpea was incorporated at 15 and 25% and supplemented with 350 and 500g enzyme/ton of feed. The experimental rations were randomly assigned to 252 twenty-one-day old Cobb500 broiler chickens in a 2x2 factorial design (two level of enzyme and two level of cowpea). At 49 days old, faeces were collected over a period of 3 days to assess the digestibility of feed components. The main results showed that the increasing rate of raw cowpea in the rations induced a linear decrease (p&lt;0.05) in feed intake. The inclusion of 25% of cowpea in the ration irrespective of the rate of incorporation of the enzyme tends to increase the digestibility of feed component as compared to the control. Growth parameters of broilers inversely decrease with the incorporation rate of raw cowpea in the ration. The highest carcass yield (p&lt;0.05) was recorded with 15% raw cowpea supplemented with 500g of enzyme per ton of feed. The relative weight of the gizzard increased significantly (p&lt;0.05) with the increasing incorporation rate of raw cowpea in the diet with or without enzyme supplements. In conclusion, raw cowpea supplemented with enzyme did not substantially improve the growth performance of broilers. Other processing methods like boiled or fermented should be considered for better utilization of cowpea in broilers diet.</p> Mube Kuietche Hervé Kana Jean Raphael Ngouana Tadjong Rubens Kada Gali Teguia Alexis Copyright (c) 2020 Scientific Journal of Animal Science 2020-03-24 2020-03-24 9 3 599 607