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Retrospective survey of spatio-temporal spread of avian influenza in and around Maiduguri, Borno state northeastern Nigeria

Y.A. Glaji, S.M. Abubakar, J.U. Umoh, M.S. Abdullahi, J.A. Nwanta

Abstract


Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) is a viral disease affecting the digestive, nervous and respiratory systems of all domestic and wild birds that is characterized by respiratory, reproductive, digestive and/or nervous signs with high morbidity and mortality. Following the first report of Avian Influenza (AI) in Nigeria in January 2006 and its subsequent confirmation in February 2006, this study was designed to Retrospectively Review the Spatio-Temporal spread of HPAI in and around Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. Out breaks were recorded from six (6) farms within Maiduguri and its environs, the index case of AI in Maiduguri was noticed on the 11th November, 2006 and was reported on the 13th November, 2006. Subsequent transmission from the index case could have been through aerosol or contaminated dust in the direction of wind flow as occasioned by the prevailing harmattan period which coincides with the outbreak period between November 2006 and January 2007. An age-specific mortality rate of 33.7% was recorded among birds of age group 0- 30 weeks, while 53.1% among the age group 31-60 weeks and 44.1% was recorded among adult birds of unknown age group. It is recommended that there should be improved management practices, which  include strict enforcement of biosecurity measures to reduce human  and  fomite  contacts risks  that could  occur  without  observing or breach of  biosecurity  protocols. Improve litter and other poultry waste management, exclusion of other animal species on poultry farms, and institution biosecurity against risks from neighbourhood farms’ activities.


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