Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access
Cover Image

Analysis of the effects of cynarin and choline chloride on the metabolic processes of broilers



One of the important modifications that have been made in animal feeding is the usage of the natural feeds and the feed supplements having any negative impact on human health. Therefore there has been an increase in the usage of vegetable extracts together with the feeds in the broiler feeding. It is indicated that the vegetable extracts ameliorates the feed consumption and the benefitting from the feed and consequently have the positive impact on the live weight. This study is carried out in order to ascertain the usage opportunities of the artichoke extract (cynara scolymus) that has positive productive effects on broilers' feed and the vegetable extract named Bedqen40 that includes choline chlorite and their metabolic impacts on liver enzymes. The study was conducted while using 100 Ross 308 hybrid chicks for 42 days as control and experimental groups. In terms of the live weight at the end of the experiments, there is a significant statistical difference between the groups (P = 0.0425). With respect to the daily increase of live weight, the difference between the experimental group and the control group is statistically negligible (P ≥ 0.1104). There is no difference in terms of the liver enzymes between the experimental group and the control group both at the start and the end of the experiment (P ≥ 0.1792).


Abdo, Z.M.A., Radvan, N.L., Selim, N.A., 2007. The effect of artichocke leaves meal on utilization of dietary energy for broiler chicks. Inter. J. Poultr.Sci., 6, 973-982.

Alçiçek, A., Bozkurt, M., and Çabuk, M., 2004. The Effect of a Mixture of Herbal Essential Oils, an Organic Acid or a Probiotic on Broyler Performance. South Afri. Soci. Anim. Sci., 34 (4), 217-222.

Aras, K.,Bağlum, S., ERŞEN, G., 1971. Medical Biochemistry IVBiochemistry of Lipids, Metabolism in Normal and Pathological. Sevinç Printing House, p. 219, Ankara.

Costabile A, Kolida S, Klinder A, Gietl E, Bäuerlein M, Frohberg C, Landschütze V, Gibson GR.,2010.A double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to establish the bifidogenic' effect of a very-long-chain inulin extracted from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) in healthy human subjects. Br. J. Nutr., 104(7), 1007-17.

Demir, E., 1989. Influence of methionine and lisin added to finishing rations of female broilers on abdominal fat.Institute of Natural and Applied Sciences of Çukurova University MSc Thesis., Number, 2889.

Deniz, G., Türkmen, I.I., Orhan,F., Biricik,H.,2006.Effect of hepabial carnitine®supplemented to drinking water on the performance of broilers under different stress conditions. Revue Méd. Vét.,157, 3, 115-120.

Emmert JL,Garrow TA,Baker DH.,1996. Hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase activity in the chicken is influenced by dietary intake of sulphur amino acids,choline and betaine. J. Nutr., 126, 2050-205.

Gebhardt, R., 1997. Antioxidative and protective properties of extract from leaves of the artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) against hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in cultured rat hepatocytes. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 144, 286-297.

Gül ,C.,2009. The comparing effects of the meso inozito on fatty liver and stomach in the presence of methionine and choline in broilers. PhD thesis, Adana.

Hassan,R.A.,Attia,Y.A.,Ganzory,E.H.,2005 .Growth, Carcass Quality and Serum Constituents of Slow Growing Chicks as Affected by Betaine Addition to Diets Containing 2. Different Levels of Methionine. Inter. J. Poult. Sci., 4,11, 856-865.

Holtmann G., Adam B., Haag S., Collet W., Grünewald E., Windeck T.,2003.Efficacy of artichoke leaf extract in the treatment of patients with functional dyspepsia: A six-week placebo-controlled, double-blind,multicentre trial. Aliment. Pharm. Therap., 18, 11-12 (1099-1105) .

Kraft, K., 1997. Artichoke leaf extract-recent findings reflecting effects on lipid metabolism,liver, and gastrointestinal tracts. Phytomed., 4, 369-378.

Kutlu, H.R., ve Görgülü, M., 2001.Alternatives for Growth Promoters as antibioticadditives in poultry feeding stuffs. Feed Mag. J., 27, 45-62.

Llorach, R., Espin, J.C., Tomas-Barberan, F.A., Ferreres, F., 2002. Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) by products as a potential source of health-promoting antioxidant phenolics. J. Agr. Food Chem., 50, 3458-3464.

Moglia, A., Lanteri, S., Comino, C., Acquadro, A., De Vos, R., Beekwilder, J., 2008. Stress-induced biosynthesis of dicaffeoylquinic acids in globe artichoke. J. Agr. Food Chem., 56, 8641-8649.

Öztürkcan, O., Demir, E., Görgülü, M., 1993. The effects of methionine, choline and lysine in the diet on broilers performance and the amount of abdominal fat. Nature-Tr. J. Agr. Forest., 17, 213-220. TÜBİTAK.

Radwan, N.L., Abdo, Z.M.A., Hassan, R.A., 2007 . Effect of feeding artichocke leaves meal on productive anad reproductive performance of Mandarah Hens. Inter. J. Poult. Sci., 6, 826-83.

Rama Raao, S.V., Shyam sunder, G., Reddy, M.R., Praharaj, N.K., Raju, M.V. and Panda, A.K., 2001. Effect of supplementary choline on the performance of broiler breeders fed on different energy sources. British Poult. Sci., 4(3), 362-367.

Roozbeh, F., Kiani,A., Azarfar,A.,2013. Effect of Artichoke Leaves Meal and Mentha Extract (Mentha piperita) on Immune Cells And Blood Biochemical Parameters of Broilers. Global Vet., 10 (1), 99-102.

Saenz, R.T., Garcia, G.D., dela Puerta, V.R., 2002. Choleretic activity and biliary elimination of lipids and bile acids induced by an artichoke leaf extract in rats. Phytomed., 9, 687-693.

Scemama, M., Garde,P., 1971. Plantes Medicinales et Phytotherapie Tome. 5(1), 39-44.

Schütz, K., Kammerer, D., Carle, R., Schieber, A., 2004. Identification and quantification of caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids from artichoke (Cynara scolymus) heads, juice and pomace by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. J. Agr. Food Chem., 52, 4090-4096.

Speroni,E., Cervellati, R., Govoni, P., Guizzardi, S., Renzulli, C., Guerra, M.C.,2003. Efficacy of different Cynara scolymus preparations on liver complaints. J. Ethnopharm., 86, 203-211.

Stoev, S.D., Djuvinov, D., Mirtchevac, T., Pavlov, D., Mantlee, P., 2002. Studies on some feed additives giving partial protection against ochratoxin A toxicity in chicks. Toxico. Let., 135, 33-50.

Yargeldi, K., Abaş,İ.,2013. The effects of cynarin,a plant ingredient,supplementation on bone structure and some serum indicens in broilers fed different feed forms. J. Fac. Vet. Med. Istanbul Univ., 39 (1), 9-19.

Walker A.F., Middleton R.W., Petrowicz O.,2001.Artichoke leaf extract reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome in a post-marketing surveillance study. Phytoth. Res., 15,1 (58-61).

Zapesochnaya,G.G.,Kurkın,V.A.,Braslavskii,V.B.,Filatova,N.V.,2002. Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 38(4) , 314-318.

Zhu, X., Zhang, H., Lo, R., 2004. Phenolic compounds from leaf extract of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) and their antimacrobial activities. J. Agr. Food Chem., 52, 7272-7278.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.