Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access
Cover Image

Bacteriological quality and occurrence of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in ice cream sold in Zaria, Kaduna State Nigeria

Aisha Usman Bagudu, Jacob Pajhi Kwada Kwaga, Asabe Adamu Dzikwi, Christian Ifeanyi Ilozue

Abstract


A cross-sectional study was conducted across Zaria metropolis to determine the bacteriological quality and occurrence of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in ice cream sold to consumers by supermarkets and street traffickers. A total of 240 samples comprising 111 industrially and 129 locally produced ice creams were examined for the Total Aerobic Plate and Coliform Counts for S. aureus and E. coli and identification of the isolates were done using conventional biochemical characterization and Microbact test. The isolate were further subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test by disk diffusion method. Of the 240 samples, 19 (8.0%) were positive for S. aureus and 5 (2.0%) were positive for E. coli; 5 (26.3%) of the S. aureus isolates were from industrially produced ice cream while 14 (73.6%) were from locally made ice cream with a statistically significant (P < 0.05). Overall, the mean Total Aerobic Plate Counts (TAPC) per ml of industrial and locally produced ice cream were 1.14 X 107 and 2.02 X107 respectively with a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) and the mean counts for Total Coliform Count (TCC) per ml for industrial ice cream and local ice cream were 5.69 X 103and 4.73 X 103 respectively. Brands of ice cream of industrially produced origin had significantly lower of S. aureus and E. coli load than those of local sources. Antibiotic susceptibility profile for S. aureus showed that all the isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic susceptibility profile for E coli showed that all the isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics except for Nitrofurantoin and Ciprofloxacin. Locally produced ice creams sold in Zaria appear to pose a higher health risk to consumers compared to industrially produced ice cream. It is imperative that bacteriological standards be enforced in order to prevent ice cream borne infections in humans. There is a need also to control antibiotic usage among dairy farmers and continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance trends on animals from which ice cream is sourced.

References


Aaku, E.N., 2000. Microbiological quality of raw, pasteurized milk and ‘madila’ (cultured fluid milk) marketed in Botswana. Botswana Notes and Records (Unpublished).

Ambili, R., Beena, A.K., 2012. Bacteriological quality of ice cream marketed in Thrissur town, Kerala, India. Vet. World., 5(12), 738-741.

American Public Health Association, 1953. Standard methods for examination of dairy products, 10th ed., APHA. Inc., New York., 147-148.

Anonymous, 1975. E. coli Enteritis. Lancet, 1131-1132.

Arnaut-Rollier, I., Lieven De Zutter, Jan Van Hoof, 1999. Identities of the Pseudomonas spp in flora from chilled chicken. Int. J. Food. Microbiol., 48, 87-96.

Benkerroum, N., Bouhal, Y.E.I., Attar, A., Marhaben, A., 2004. Occurrence of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli 0157:H7 in selected diary and meat products marketed in the city of Rabat, Morocco. J. Food. Protect., 67(6), 1234-1237.

Brain, A.F., Allan, G.C., 1982. A chemical approach food science 4th edition.

Buzby, J.C., Roberts, T., 1997. Economic costs and trade impacts of microbial food borne illness:World. Health. Stat. Q., 50(1/2), 57-66.

Caglayanlar, G.E., Kunduhoglu, B., Coksoyler, N., 2009. Comparison of the microbiological quality of packed and unpacked ice creams sold in Bursa, Turkey. J. Art. Sci., 12, 93-102.

Champagne, C.P., Laing, R.R., Roy, D., Mafu, A.A., 1994. Psycrotrophs in dairy products: Their effects and their control. Crit. Revivis. Food. Sci. Nutr., 34, 1-30.

Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute, 2004. Performance standards for antimicrobial disk susceptibility testing. CLSI document M100-514. CLSI, Wayne, PA., U.S.A.

Daniels, N.A., Mackinnon, L., Rowe, S.M., Bean, N.H., Griffin, P.M., Mead, P.S., 2002. Foodborne disease outbreaks in United States schools’. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 21, 623-628.

De Neeling, A.J., Van den Broek, M.J., Spalburg, E.C., Van Santen-Verheuvel, M.G., Dam Deisz, W.D., Boshuizen, H. C., Van de Giessen, A.W., Van Duijkeren, E., Huijsdens, X.W., 2007. High prevalence of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs. Vet. Microbiol., 122, 366-372.

Dilielo, L.R., 1982. Methods in food and dairy microbiology. AVI publishing Co. Inc. Westport Connt. USA. 39.

Dolores, G.E., Doyle, J.G., 2001. Escherichia coli in diarrhea disease. Ann. Int. Med., 247, 81-90.

Doyle, M.P., Evans, P.D., 1999. Food borne pathogens of recent concern. Ann. Revis. Nutr., 6, 25-41.

Enoroth, A., Ahrne, S., Molin, G., 2000. Contamination of milk with Gram-negative spoilage bacteria during filling of retail containers. Int. J. Food. Microbiol., 57, 99-106.

Gomez, A., 1969. Microbial content and hygienic conditions of ice cream sold in Leon Alimentaria. 6, 21-25.

Graff-Johnson, C.D., 1974. The microbiological examination of ice cream manufactured in Ghana. Ghana J. Agr. Sci., 7, 227-230.

Ikenebomeh, M.J., Ogaguvia, R.A., 1993. Microbiology of ice cream. Niger. J. Microbiol., 9, 40-46.

International Dairy Federation, 1982. Proceedings of the IDF seminar on Recombinant of milk and milk products, Singapore. IDF bulletin No. 142, International Dairy Federation, Brussels.

International Standard Organization, 1995. Recommendation of the meeting of the subcommittee, international organisation for standardization on meat and meat products. ISO/TC-36/SC.6. The Netherlands, 10-18.

James, M., Jay, J.M., 1978. Indices of food sanitary quality and microbiological standards and criteria Modern Food Microbiology, 2nd edition. 311.

Kabir, J.A., Olukayode, C.X., Chidi, E.O., Christopher, C.I., Kehinde, A.F., 2005. Screening of crude extract of six medicinal plants used in Southwest Nigeria on orthodox medicine for anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity. Biomedical Central Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 5, 6.

Kanbakan, U., Con, A.H., Ayar, A., 2004. Determination of microbiological contamination sources during ice cream production in Denizli, Turkey. Food. Contr., 15, 463-470.

Khanna, T., Friendship, R., Dewey, C., Weese, J.S., 2007. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in pigs and pig farmers. Vet. Microbiol., 128, 303.

Kocak, C., Akan, M., Yardemci, H., 1998. Bacteriological quality of ice cream marketed in Ankara. Ankara University. Vet. Fakult. Derg., 45, 131-134.

Kwaga, J.K.P., Adesiyun, A.A., 1984. Antibiograms of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from some ready-to eat products. Marshall, R.T., Arbuckle, W.S., 1996. Ice Cream. 5thed. Chapman and Hall, New York. J. Food. Protect., 47, 865-867.

Masud, T., Ather, H.I., Azhar Chushti, M., Amim Shah, M., 1988. Microbiological studies on indigenous dahi with special reference to public health. Aust. J. Dair. Technol., 8-13.

McFaddin, J.F., 2000. Biochemical tests for the identification of medical bacteria, 3rd ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA. 94-95.

Osamwonyi, O.U., Obayagbona, O.N., Olisaka, F., 2011. Evaluation of the bacteriological quality of ice creams sold in some locations within Benin City. J. Food. Sci. Technol., 5(3), 6-11.

Pelzer, J., Michael, J., Roger, D.R., 2000. Food and waterborne infections of mammals 2nd ed. USA chap 27, 436-437.

Prescott, M., Harley, P., Klan, D.A., 2005. Microbiology 6th Edition McGraw Hill New York Publishers U.S.A p. 910.

Schroder, M.J.A., 1984. Origins and levels of post pasteurisation contamination of milk in the dairy and their effects on keeping quality. J. Dair. Res., 51, 59-67.

Sinell, H.J., 1989. The hygiene of refrigerated and frozen foods. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hygiene [B], 187(4-6), 533-545.

Soomro, A.H., Arain, M.A., Khaskheli, M., Bhutto, B., 2002. Isolation of Escherichia coli from raw milk and milk products in relation to public health sold under market condition at Tandojam. Pak. J. Nutr., 1(3), 151-152.

Soomro, A.H., Arain, M.A., Khaskheli, M., Bhutto, B., Memon, A.Q., 2003. Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus milk products sold at sweet meat shops of Hyderabad. J. Biol. Sci., 3(1), 91-94.

Talaro, K., Talaro, A., 1996. Foundations in Microbiology 2nd Edition. Mc- Graw Hill Publishers USA. 840-841.

Toklu, G.S., Yaygin, H., 2000. Antalya piyasasinda satilan dondurmalarin hijyenik kalitesi ve kimyasal ozellikleri. Gida Bilimi ve Teknoloji Derg, 4(1), 38-45.

Umoh, V.J., Adesiyun, A.A., Gomwalk, N.E., 1990. Antibiogram of Staphylococcus strains isolated from milk and milk products. J. Vet. Med., 37, 701-706.

Verma, G.S., 1992. Bacteria quality of some ingredients used in the manufacture of ice- cream. India. J. Anim. Res., 6, 27-50.

Vica, M., Glevitzky, M., Dumitrel, G., Popa, M., Todoran, A., 2010. Microbiological quality of ice cream produced in Alba County, Romania. J. Agroaliment. Proc. Technol., 16, 19-23.

Warke, R., Kamat, A., Kamat, M., Thomas, P., 2000. Incidence of pathogenic psychrotrophs in ice creams sold in some retail outlets in Mumbai, India. Food. Contr., 11, 77-83.

Yusuf, M.A., Abdul, T., Abdul Hamid, T., Yusuf, M.A., 2013. Assessment of Bacteriological quality of ice cream offered for public consumption in Bauchi, Nigeria. J. Pharm., 3, 23-30.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.