Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access
Cover Image

Sustainable water resources management, future demands and adaptation strategies in Sudan

A. M. Omer

Abstract


For the thirty-nine million, who live in Sudan, environmental pollution is amajor concern; therefore industry, communities, local authorities and centralgovernment, to deal with pollution issues, should adopt an integrated approach.Most polluters pay little or no attention to the control and proper managementof polluting effluents. This may be due to the lack of enforceable legislationand/or fear of spending money on treatment of the effluent prior to discharge.Furthermore, the imposed fines are generally low and therefore do not deterpotential offenders. The present problems that are related to water andsanitation in Sudanare many and varied, and the disparity between water supply and demand isgrowing with time due to the rapid population growth and aridity. The situationof the sewerage system in the cities is extremely critical, and there are nosewerage systems in the rural areas. There is an urgent need for substantialimprovements and extensions to the sewerage systems treatment plants. The furtherdevelopment of water resources for agriculture and domestic use is one of thepriorities to improve the agricultural yield of the country, and to meet thedomestic and industrial demands for water. This article discusses the overallproblem and identifies possible solutions.

References


Anon., 1979. Map of the World Distribution Regions., MAB Tech Note 7.

ASCE., 1998. ASCE Task Committee on Sustainability Criteria, Sustainability Criteria for Water Resource Systems, Reston, Virginia, USA.

FAO United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation., 1999. The State of Food in Security in the World, Rome: Italy.

James, W., 1994. Managing water as economic resources. Overseas Development Institute (ODI), UK.

Noureddine, R.M., 1997. Conservation Planning and Management of Limited Water Resources in Arid and Semi-arid Areas. Proceedings of the 9th Session of the Regional Commission on Land and Water Use in the Near East, Rabat: Morocco. pp. 15-21.

Omer, A.M., 1995. Water Resources in Sudan, NETWAS 2, Nairobi. pp.

-8.

Omer, A.M., 2000. Water and Environment in Sudan: The Challenges of the New Millennium. NETWAS. 7(2), 1-3.

Omer, A.M., 2001. Water Development in Sudan: Present and Future challenges. Arab Organisation for Agriculture Development (AOAD). Arab. J. Irrigat. Water. Manag. 2, 48-58.

Omer, A.M., 2002. Focus on Groundwater in Sudan. Int. J. Geosci. Environ. Geol., 41(8), 972-976.

Omer, A.M., 2004. Water Resources Development and Management in the Republic of the Sudan. Water. Energ. Int. 61(4), 27-39.

Omer, A.M., 2008. Water Resources in the Sudan. Water Int., 32 (5), 894-903.

Overseas Development Administration (ODA)., 1987. Sudan Profile of Agricultural Potential. Survey, UK.

Salih, A.M.A., Ali, A.A.G., 1992. Water Scarcity and Sustainable Development. Nature and Resources. 28,1.

Seckler, D., 1992. Private Sector Irrigation in Africa-Water Resources and Irrigation Policy studies. Winrock. Int. Inst. Agr. Dev.

UNESCO., 1999. UNESCO Working Group M.IV, Sustainability Criteria for Water Resource Systems, Cambridge. United Kingdom, Cambridge University Press.

World Health Organisation (WHO)., 2006. Water Norms and Attitudes. Geneva,Switzerland.

World Resources Institute (WRI)., 2002. World. Resour. 2000-2001, USA.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.