Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access
Cover Image

Comprehensive study of land transportation external costs (Iran)

Hasan Karimzadegan


This research is a comprehensive study of land transportation external costs that influence on the national economy. It includes detailed analysis of various land transportation costs by using the best available data. It provides monetized estimate approaches for estimate external costs. There are many efforts to get these external costs from consumers and producers. External costs are much expanded that this report is going to present a lot of information about the external costs of land transportation and different ways of estimating them in financial terms. So this study has an economical approach to turn the externalities into the monetized and it can help to assess the planning and policies in Iran. This work is done due to the people and society’s decision for choosing policies, according to benefits and social costs that it’s known as a good approach in the world. Environmental economists discover some new methods to account these effects as financial facts, in order to change the view point of traditional cost benefit analysis and instead of that, replace marginal social cost and marginal social benefit. External effects are a general expression that includes costs and benefits which can’t reflect the market’s prices. The costs and benefits are so important for planning of land transportation. It is one of the most comprehensive studies in Iran, including many costs categories that are often overlooked. It is help to apply economic evaluation techniques. The costs that are in the attention of the past studies and recognition of land transportation divided to 20 groups. In this study after study economic evaluation techniques Hedonic approach that depends on the real exchanges of market can have more real results. Hedonic is better than the others approach. The avoid cost and controlling costs are not the same with real costs. The contingent valuation method not based on the market exchanges and people reveal their willingness to pay. Due to limited time and resources when decisions have to be made, it’s offered to use the benefits transfer method for Iran. The benefits transfer method is a way that we can use the studies of external costs and we also use them in a reasonable way and in some more places.


Clarkson, R., Deyes, K., 2002. Estimating the social cost of carbon emissions. Government Economic Service Working Paper 140, HM Treasury and Defray.

Delucchi, M.A., 2005. Institute of transportation studies. University of California, Davis, California, 95616.

Ellwanger, G., 2000. External environmental costs of transport-comparison of recent studies. Social Costs and Sustainable Mobility, ZEW, Physical-Verlag, 15-20.

EPA (Environment Protection Authority Victoria), 1994. Victorian transport externalities study. Vol. II, The Costing and Costs of Transport Externalities in Selected Coutries: A Review, May, Victoria.

ExternE, 1998. ExternE-Externalities of Energy. Vol. 7, Methodology 1998 Update (EUR 19083); Published by European Commission, Directorate-General XII, Science Research and Development. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, L-2920 Luxembourg. Results are also available at

Forkenbrock, D., 2001. Comparision of external costs of rail and truck freight transport. Transportation Research A, 35(4), 321-337.

Karimzadegan, H., Rahmatian, M., Farhood, D., Yunesian, M., 2007. Economic valuation of premature mortality and morbidity. Int. J. Environ. Res., 1(2), 128-135.

Kirchhoff, S., Colby, B., LaFrance, J., 1997. Evaluating the performance of benefit transfer: An empirical inquiry. J. Environ. Econ. Manag., 33, 75-93.

Litman, T.A., 2005. Transportation cost and benefit analysis. Victoria Transport Policy Institute.

Maries, L., 2003. Policy applications of environmental accounting. The World Bank Environment Department, World Bank U.S.A.

Pearce, D., 2001. Energy policy externalities: And overview. Workshop on energy policy and externalities, Paris.

Quinet, E., 2004. A meta-analysis of Western European external cost estimates. Transportation Research D, 9(6), 465-476.

Randall, A., 2006. A consistent valuation and pricing framework for non-commodity outputs: Progress and prospects. Agr. Ecosyst. Environ., 120(2007), 21-30.

U.S. EPA, 1999. Indicators of the environmental impact of transportation.

United Nations, 2015. Multistage Environmental and Social Impact Assessment of Road Projects (ESCAP).

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.