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Comprehensive study of land transportation external costs (Iran)

Hasan Karimzadegan

Abstract


This research is a comprehensive study of land transportation external costs that influence on the national economy. It includes detailed analysis of various land transportation costs by using the best available data. It provides monetized estimate approaches for estimate external costs. There are many efforts to get these external costs from consumers and producers. External costs are much expanded that this report is going to present a lot of information about the external costs of land transportation and different ways of estimating them in financial terms. So this study has an economical approach to turn the externalities into the monetized and it can help to assess the planning and policies in Iran. This work is done due to the people and society’s decision for choosing policies, according to benefits and social costs that it’s known as a good approach in the world. Environmental economists discover some new methods to account these effects as financial facts, in order to change the view point of traditional cost benefit analysis and instead of that, replace marginal social cost and marginal social benefit. External effects are a general expression that includes costs and benefits which can’t reflect the market’s prices. The costs and benefits are so important for planning of land transportation. It is one of the most comprehensive studies in Iran, including many costs categories that are often overlooked. It is help to apply economic evaluation techniques. The costs that are in the attention of the past studies and recognition of land transportation divided to 20 groups. In this study after study economic evaluation techniques Hedonic approach that depends on the real exchanges of market can have more real results. Hedonic is better than the others approach. The avoid cost and controlling costs are not the same with real costs. The contingent valuation method not based on the market exchanges and people reveal their willingness to pay. Due to limited time and resources when decisions have to be made, it’s offered to use the benefits transfer method for Iran. The benefits transfer method is a way that we can use the studies of external costs and we also use them in a reasonable way and in some more places.

References


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