Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access
Cover Image

Parasite-based confirmation of malaria with rapid diagnostic tests: Challenges and Advantages

Chika Celen Okangba

Abstract


The key to effective case management of malaria is prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria which is necessary to prevent morbidity and mortality. Accurate and practical malaria diagnostic such as immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic test can avert unnecessary treatments and save lives. Malaria presents a diagnostic challenge in most tropical countries. The urgency and importance of obtaining results quickly from the examination of blood samples from patient with suspected malaria is possible with the introduction of rapid malaria diagnostic test. Rapid diagnostic tests are useful in guiding therapeutic intervention, can be accessible to rural and urban populations, easy to perform and to interpret, affordable, requires no sophicated equipment and prompt treatment of malaria. The use of rapid diagnostic test   in the case management of malaria has a lot of challenges which includes: persistent of histidine rich protein 2 in circulation after therapy and parasite death, effect of genetic diversity, lack of quality control on microscopy examination, poor transportation and storage condition, poor regulatory mechanism, lot-to-lot variation, parasite density and lack of extensive training prior to the use of rapid diagnostic test and supervision.


References


Agnamey, B.N., Cunha, M.L., Piovesan-Alves, F., Pang, L.W., 2005. Community-based program for malaria case management in the Brazilian Amazon. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2001(65), 872-876.

Arsene, M.T., Linda, D., Eric, L., Veroniane, H., David, B., Frederic, A., Sandrine, H., 2008. Evaluation of the intra-and inter-specific genetic variability of plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase. Malaria J., 1-6.

Baker, J., McCarthy, J., Gatton, M., Kyle, D.E., Belizario, V., Luchavez, J., Bell, D., Cheng, Q., 2005. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2) and its effects on the performance of PfHRP-2 based rapid diagnostic tests. J. Infect. Dis., 192, 870-877.

Batwala, V., Pascal, M., Fred, N., 2011. Are rapid diagnostic tests more accurate in diagnosis of malaria compared to microscopy? Malaria J., 9, P5.

Bechem, N.N., Leke, R.F., Tietche, F., Taylor, D.W., 1999. Evaluation of a rapid test for histidine rich protein 2 for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection in Cameroonian Children. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 93, 46. First citation in article, CrossRef, PubMed.

Bell, C., Long, G.W., Weiss, W.R., McElroy, P.D., Maret, S.M., Oloo, A.J., Hoffman, S.L., 2001. Diagnosis of malaria by detection of Plasmodium falciparum HRP-2 antigen with a rapid dipstick antigen-capture assay. Lancet 1994, 33, 564-568.

Bell, D., Wongsrichanalai, C., Barnwell, J.W., 2006. Ensuring quality and access for malaria diagnosis; how can it be achieved? Nat. Rev. Microbiol., 4, S7-S20.

Berkley, W.M., Yowell, C.A., Hoard, A., Vanderjagt, T.A., Hunsaker, L.A., Piper, R.C., Makler, M.T., 2005. Comparative structural analysis and kinetic properties of lactate dehydrogenase from the four species of human malarial parasites. Biochem., 43, 6219-6229.

Carallo, B., Brennan, R.J., Ngoy, P., Dofara, D., Otto, B., Clements, M., Stewart, T., 2005. Mortality in the democratic republic of Congo: A nationwide survey. Lancet 2006, 367, 44-51.

Chanda, E., Kamuliwo, M., Steketee, R.W., Macdonald, M.B., Babaniyi, O., Mukonka, V.M., 2013. An overview of malaria control. Am. Med. J., 4, 91-99.

Chandramohan, A., Paulo, A., Bell, A.D., 2002. What is the precision of rapid diagnostic test for malaria. International Child Health Review Collaboration. http://www.ichrc.int/

Coleman, R.E., Sattabongkot, J., Promstaporm, S., Maneechai, N., Khuntirat, B., 2004. Comparison of PCR and microscopy for the detection of asymptomatic malaria in a Plasmodium falciparum/vivax endemic area in Thailand. Malaria J., 5, 121.

Counihan, H., Harvey, S.A., Sekeseke-Chinyama, M., Hamainza, M., Banda, R., Thindo, M., Masaninga, F., Bell, D., 2012. Community Health Workers Use Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) Safely and Accurately: Results of a Longitudinal Study in Zambia. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 87(1), 57-63.

Cunningham, B., Ngoy, P., Mulumba, F., Hardy, C., Bemo, V.N., Stewart, T., Lewis, J., Brennan, R.J., 2004. Update on mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Results from a third nationwide survey. Disast. Med. Publ. Health Prep., 3, 88-96.

D’Acremont, V., Aggrey, M., Swai, N., Tyllia, R., Kahama-Maro, J., Lengeler, C., Genton, B., 2010. Withholding antimalarials in febrile children with a negative Rapid Diagnostic Test is safe in moderately and highly endemic areas of Tanzania: A prospective longitudinal study. Clin. Infect. Dis., 51, 506-511.

D’Acremont, V., Kilowoko, M., Kyungu, E., Philipina, S., Sangu, W., Kahama-Maro, J., Lengeler, C., Cherpillod, P., Kaiser, L., Genton, B., 2014. Beyond malaria-causes of fever in outpatient Tanzanian children. N Engl. J. Med., 370, 809-817.

Desakorn, A.D., Hawkes, M., Kain, K.C., 2005. Advances in malaria diagnosis. Expet. Rev. Anti Infect. Ther., 2007(5), 485-495.

Djimide, M.L., Piovesan-Alves, F., Pang, L.W., 2008. Community-based program for malaria case management in the Brazilian Amazon. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2001(65), 872-876.

Duong, A.L., Masika, P.M., Semarundu, W.J., Urassa, R., Mosha, J., Chandramohan, D., Gosling, R.D., 2004. Over-diagnosis of malaria is not a lost cause. Malaria J., 5, 120.

Farcas, G.A., Zhong, K.J., Loregrove, F.E., Graham, C.M., Jain, K.C., 2003. Evaluation of the Binax NOW ICT Test versus polymerase chain reaction and microscopy for the detection of malaria in returning travelers. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 69, 598-592.

Fogg, G.L., Guarner, J., Paddock, C.D., Shieh, W.J., Greer, P.W., Barnwell, J.W., 2008. Immunohistochemical assays for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum in tissues and implications for pathogenesis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 76, 251-259.

Forney, J.R., Wongscrichanalai, C., Magill, A.J., 2003. Devices for rapid diagnosis of malaria: Evaluation of prototype assays that detect Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 and a Plasmodium vivax-specific antigen. J. Clin. Microbiol., 41, 2358-2366.

Forney, J.R., Wongsrichanalai, C., Magill, A.J., Craig, L.G., Sirichaisinthop, J., Bautista, C.T., Miller, R.S., Ockenhouse, C.F., Kester, K.E., Aronson, N.E., Andersen, E.M., Quino-Ascurra, H.A., Vidal, C., Moran, K.A., Murray, C.K., DeWitt, C.C., Heppner, D.G., Kain, K.C., Ballou, W.R., Grasser Jr, R.A., 2003. Devices for rapid diagnosis of malaria: Evaluation of prototype assay that detects Plasmodium falciparium histidine-rich protein 2 and a Plasmodium vivax specific antigen. J. Clin. Microbiol., 41, 2358-2366.

Greenwood, B., Tunter, P.O., Morison, E., 2001. Mortality and morbility from malaria among children in a rural area of The Gambia, West Africa. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 81, 478-486.

Guthmann, O., Diouf, M., Dansokho, E.F., MacLaughlin, G., Diallo, S., 2002. Diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria using Parasight -F, ICT Malaria PF/PV and malaria IgG CELISA assays. Parasite, 5, 189-192.

Haque, U., Glass, G.E., Bomblies, A., Hashizume, M., Mitra, D., Noman, N., Haque, W., Kabir, M.M., Yamamoto, T., Overgaard, H.J., 2013. Risk factors associated with clinical malaria episodes in Bangladesh: A longitudinal study. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 88, 727-732.

Harvey, R., Celine, B., Rogelin, R., Henry, A., Arsene, R., Laurence, R., Martial, J., Valerie, A., Didier, M., 2008. Accuracy and reliability of malaria diagnostic technique for guiding febrile outpatient treatment in malaria-endemic countries. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 78(2), 217-221.

Hopkins, R.J., Uni, M., Alkawa, S.B., Aley, J., Leech, A.J., Taylor, W.D., 2007. Plasmodium falciparum: histidine -rich protein II is expressed during gametocyte development. Exp. Parasitol., 96, 139-146.

Humar, S.I., Guerra, C.A., Tatem, A.J., Atkinson, P.M., Snow, R.W., 1997. Urbanization, malaria transmission and disease burden in Africa. Nat. Rev. Microbiol., 3, 81-90.

Huong, N.M., Davis, T.M., Hewitt, S., Huong, N.V., Uyen, T.T., Nhan, D.H., Cong le, D., 2005. Comparison of three antigen detection methods for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of malaria: A field study from Southern Vietnam. Trop. Med. Int. Health, 7, 304-308.

Iqbal, A.P., Jelinek, T., Grobusch, M.P., Nothdurft, H.D., 2001. Use of dipstick tests for the rapid diagnosis of malaria in nonimmune travelers. J. Travel. Med., 7, 175-179.

Ishengoma, D.S., Francis, F., Mmbando, B.P., Lusingu, J.P., Magistrado, P., Alifrangis, M., Theander, T.G., Bygbjerg, I.C., Lemnge, M.M., 2011. Accuracy of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in community studies and their impact on treatment of malaria in an area with declining malaria burden in northeastern Tanzania. Malaria J., 10, 176.

Jorgenson, P., Chantap, L., Rebueno, A., Tsuyuoka, R., Bell, D., 2007. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests in tropical climates: The need for cool chain. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 74, 750-754.

Konradasen, F., Amerasinghe, P.H., Perera, D., Van der Hoek, W., Amerasinghe, F.P., 2000. A village treatment centre for malaria: Community response in Sri Lanka. Soc. Sci. Med., 50, 879-889.

Kyabayinze, D.J., Asiimwe, C., Nakanjako, D., Nabakooza, J., Bajabajite, M., Strachan, C., Tibenderana, J.K., Geetruydan, T.V., 2012. Programme level implementation of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) use: Outcomes and cost of training health workers at lower level health care facilities in Uganda. BMC Public Health, 12, 291.

Lon, C., Mark, E.R., Shelley, A.E., 2007. Clinical features cannot predict a diagnosis of malaria or differentiate the infecting species in children living in an area of low transmission. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 92, 45-49.

Lubell, J., Lintag, M.E., Coll-Black, M., Baik, F., Bell, D., 2008. An assessment of various blood collection and transfer methods used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests. Malaria J., 6, 149.

Luchavez, J., Lintag, M.E., Coll-Back, M., Back, F., Bell, D., 2007. An assessment of various blood collection and transfer methods used for malaria rapid diagnostic test. Malaria J., 6, 149.

Luxerburger, N., Baker, J., Bell, D., McCarthy, J., Cheng, Q., 1998. Assessing the genetic diversity of the aldolase genes of Plasmodium falciparium and P. vivax and its potential effect on the performance of aldolase-detecting Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). J. Clin. Microbiol., 44, 4547-4549.

Malaria Fact Sheet, 2013. WHO. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs094/en/

Masaninga, F., Chanda, E., Chanda-Kapata, P., Hamainza, B., Masendu, H.T., Kamuliwo, M., Kapelwa, W., Chimumbwa, J., Govere, J., Otten, M., Fall, I.S., Babaniyi, O., Siziya, S., 2013. Review of the malaria epidemiology and trends in Zambia. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed., 3, 89-94.

Masanja, I.M., de Bethune, X., Jan, J., 2011. Implementing ideal health policy in a fragile health system: the example of expanding the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in mainland Tanzania. Malaria J., 10, 322.

Mason, D.P., Kawamoto, F., Lin, K., Laoboonchai, A., Wongsrichanalai, C., 2002. A comparism of two rapid immunochromatographic tests to expert microscopy in the diagnosis of malaria. Acta. Trop., 82, 51-59.

Massika, R.S., McDaniel, P., Wongsrichanalai, C., 2006. Following the course of malaria treatment by detecting parasite lactate dehydrogenase enzyme. Br. J. Haematol., 113, 558-559.

Moges, B., Amare, B., Belyhun, H., Gizachew, T.M., Workineh, M., Gebrehiwot, A., Woldeyohannes, D., Mulu, A., Kassu, A., 2012. Comparison of CareStart™ HRP2/pLDH COMBO rapid malaria test with light microscopy in north-west Ethiopia. Malaria J., 11, 234.

Moody, A., 2002. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria parasite. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 15(1), 66-78.

Moody, A., Hunt-Cooke, A., Gabbett, E., Chiodini, P., 2000. Performance of the OptiMAL malaria antigen capture dipstick for malaria diagnosis and treatment monitoring at the hospital for tropical diseases, London. Br. J. Haematol., 109, 891-894.

Moon, M., Newton, P.N., Yeung, S., Pongvongsa, T., White, N.J., 2009. Short communication: An assessment of the use of malaria rapid test by village health volunteers in rural Laos. Trop. Med. Int. Health, 9, 325-329.

Mueller, L., Betuela, M., Ginny, J., Reeder, C., Genton, B., 2007. The sensitivity of the OptiMAL rapid diagnostic test to the presence of Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte compromises its ability to monitor treatment outcomes in an area of Papua New Guinea in which malaria is endemic. J. Clin. Microbiol., 45, 627-630.

Mukanga, C.D., Burges, D.C., Taylor, H.J., Kain, K.C., 2010. Evaluation of a rapid and inexpensive dipstick assay for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Bull. World Health Organ., 77, 553-559.

Murray, C.K., Bell, D., Gasser, R.A., Wongsrichanalai, C., 2003. Rapid diagnostic testing for malaria. Trop. Med. Int. Health, 8, 876-883.

Murray, C.K., Robert, A., Gasser, Jr., Alan, J., Magill, A.J., Scott Miller, R., 2009. Update on rapid diagnostic testing for malaria. Microbiol. Rev., 97-110.

Nana, O.W., Andrew, A.A., Winston, A., Stella, B., Jonathan, K.S., 2008. Short report: Detection of Plasmodium falciparum Histidine-rich protein II in saliva of a malaria patients. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 78(5), 733-735.

Ndiaye, H.R., Ouattar, J.K., Odong, G.W., Rwakimari, J.B., Counihan, H., 2009. Operational accuracy and comparative persistent antigenicity of HRP2 rapid diagnostic tests for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a hyperendemic region of Uganda. Malaria J., 7, 221.

Nicastri, O.W., Andrew, A.A., Winston, A., Stella, B., Jonathan, K.S., 2009. Short report: Detection of Plasmodium falciparum Histidine-rich protein II in saliva of a malaria patients. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 78(5), 733-735.

Okangba, C.C., Elikwu, J.C., Shobowale, E.O., Shonekan, O., Nwadike, V., Tayo, B., Omeonu, A.C., Faluyi, B., Meremikwu, C., Falade, O., Osoba, D., Binuyo, T., Akinboboye, O., 2016. Histidine rich protein 2 performance in determining the prevalence of malaria among patients presenting with clinical symptoms of malaria. Sci. J. Pure Appl. Sci., 5(1), 339-350.

Peters, R.P., Zijlstra, E.E., Schijffelen, M.J., Walsh, A.L., Joaki, G., Kumwenda, J.J., Kublin, J.G., Molyneux, M.E., Lewis, D.K., 2004. A prospective study of blood stream infections as cause of fever in Malawi: Clinical predictors and implications for management. Trop. Med. Int. Health, 9, 928-934.

Piper, L.G., Ravetch, J.V., David, A.R., Walker, D.E., 1999. Large deletions result from breakage and healing of P. falciparum chromosomes. Cell, 55, 869-874.

Premji, C.J., Lindo, J.F., Klaskala, W.I., 1994. Evaluation of the OptiMAL test for rapid diagnsis of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum.

Rafael, M.E., Taylor, T., Magill, A., Lim, Y.W., Girosi, F., Allan, R., 2006. Reducing the burden of childhood malaria in Africa: The role of improved diagnostics. Nat., 444(Suppl. 1), 39-48.

Randomised trial. BMJ, 334, 403.

Rennie, W., Phetsouvanh, R., Lupisan, S., Vanisaveth, V., Hongvanthong, B., Phompida, S., Alday, P., Fulache, M., Lumagui, R., Jorgensen, P., Bell, D., Harvey, S., 2007. Minimising human error in malaria rapid diagnosis: Clarity of written instructions and health worker performance. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 101, 9-18.

Reyburn, H., Mbakilwa, H., Mwangi, R., Mwerinde, O., Olomi, R., Drakeley, C., Whitty, C.J., 2007. Rapid diagnostic tests compared with malaria microscopy for guiding outpatient treatment of febrile illness in Tanzania:

Reyburn, H., Mbatia, R., Drakeley, C., Carneiro, I., Mwakasungula, E., Mwerinde, O., Saganda, K., Shao, J., Kitua, A., Olomi, R., Greenwood, B.M., Whitty, C.J., 2004. Overdiagnosis of malaria in patients with severe febrile illness in Tanzania: A prospective study. BMJ (Clin. Res. ed), 329(7476), 1212.

Risch, J., Gobels, K., Muller-Stover, I., Hoppenheit, B., Haussinger, D., 1999. Co-reactivity of plasmodial histidine-rich protein 2 and aldolase on a combined immuno-chromographic-malaria dipstick (ICT) as a potential semi-quantitative marker of high Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia. Parasitol. Res., 94, 384-385.

Rolfes, M.A., McCarra, M., Magak, N.G., Ernst, K.C., Dent, A.E., Lindblade, K.A., John, C.C., 2012. Development of clinical immunity to malaria in highland areas of low and unstable transmission. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 87, 806-812.

Sani, U.M., Jiya, N.M., Ahmed, H., 2013. Evaluation of malaria rapid diagnostic test among febrile children in Sokoto, Nigeria. Int. J. Med. Med. Sci., 3(5), 434-440.

Shillcut, N., Mishra, A.K., Shukla, M.M., Chand, S.K., Bharti, P.K., 2007. Diagnostic and prognostic utility of an inexpensive rapid on site malaria diagnostic test (ParaHIT f) among ethnic tribal population in areas of high, low and no transmission in central India. BMC Infect. Dis., 5, 50.

Singer, S., Musey, L., Knebel, M.U., 2004. Evaluation of a malaria rapid diagnostic test for assessing the burden of malaria during pregnancy. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 70, 481-485.

Singh, N., Valecha, N., 2000. Evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test, ‘Determine malaria Pf’, in epidemic-prone, forest villages of central India (Madhya Pradesh). Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 94, 421-427.

Sirima, S.B., Walker, S.L., Frenando, Y.G., 2003. Early treatment of childhood fevers with pre-packaged antimalarial drugs in the home reduces severe malaria morbidity in Burkina Faso. Trop. Med. Int. Health, 8, 133-139.

Swarthout, M.P., Jelinek, T., Hanscheid, T., 2007. False positivity of rapid antigen detection tests for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria: Issue appears to be more complicated than presented. J. Clin. Microbiol., 37, 3781-3782.

Tagbor, A.R., Kefyalew, T., Tesfaye, G., Counihan, H., Yadeta, D., Cundill, B., Reithinger, R., Kolaczinski, J.H., 2008. Performance of three multi-species rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria in Oromia. Malaria J., 9, 297.

Tavrow, P., Knebel, E., Cogswell, L., 2000. Operations Research Results: Using quality design to improve malaria rapid diagnostic tests in Malawi. Bethesda, MD: Published for the U.S. Agency for International Development by the Quality Assurance Project.

Tavrow, P., Knebel, E., Cogswell, L., 2007. Using quality design to improve malaria rapid diagnostic tests in Malawi. Operations Research Results, 1, 4.

Tjitra, E., Anstey, N.M., Sugiarto, P., Warikar, N., Kenangalem, E., Karyana, M., Lampah, D.A., Price, R.N., 2005. Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium vivax associated with severe and fatal Malaria: A prospective study in Papua, Indonesia. PLoS Med., 5.

Tjitra, E., Suprianto, S., McBroom, J., Currie, G.J., Anstey, N.M., 2001. Persistent ICT Malaria Pf/Pv panmalarial and HRP2 antigen reactivity after treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria is associated with gametocytemia and results in false - positive diagnosis of P. vivax in convalescence. J. Clin. Microbiol., 39, 1025-1031.

Towie, E.R., Ratsimbasoa, A., Randriamanantena, A., Raherinjafy, R., Rasoarilalao, N., Menard, D., 2006. Which malaria rapid test for Madagascar? Field and laboratory evaluation of three tests and expert microscopy of samples from suspected malaria patients in Madagascar. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 76, 481-485.

Trachsler, M., Schlagenhauf, P., 1999. Steffen R: Feasibility of a rapid dipstick antigen-capture assay for self-testing of travellers' malaria. Trop. Med. Int. Health, 4, 442-447.

Warhurst, D.C., Williams, J.E., 1996. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria. J. Clin. Pathol., 49, 533-538.

Waverly, R., Rattanaxay, P., Socorro, L., Viengsay, V., Bousay, H., Samiane, P., Portia, A., Mila, F., Richard, L., David, B., Steven, H., 2007. Minimising human error in malaria rapid diagnosis: Clarity of written instructions and health worker performance. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 101, 9-18.

Whitty, C.J.M., Amstrong, M., Behrens, R.H., 2000. Self testing for falciparum malaria with antigen-capture cards by travelers with symptoms of malaria. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 63, 295-297.

Williams, R.W., Phetsouvanh, R., Lupisan, S., Vanisaveth, V., Hongvanthong, B., Jorgensen, P., Bell, D., Harvey, S., 2009. Preventing human error in malaria rapid diagnosis: Clarity of written instructions and health worker performance. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 101, 9-18.

Wongsrichanalai, C., Barcus, M.J., Muth, S., Sutamihardja, A., Wernsdorfer, W.H., 2007. A review of malaria diagnostic tools: Microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 77, 119-127.

World Health Organization, 2000. New perspective: malaria diagnosis. Report of a joint WHO/USAID informal consultation 25-27 October 1999. World Organization.

World Health Organization, 2000a. Approaches to the diagnosis of malaria. In: malaria diagnosis. Report of a joint WHO/USAID informal consultation, 10-18.

World Health Organization, 2003. Malaria rapid diagnosis. Making it Work. RS/2003/GE/05(PHL).

World Health Organization, 2004. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria: Methods manual for laboratory quality control testing. Version 2. World Health Organization, Manila.

World Health Organization, 2005. Interim notes on selection of types of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in relation to the occurrence of different parasite species. Regional office for Africa and Western Pacific.

World Health Organization, 2006. The role of laboratory diagnosis to support malaria disease management. Focus on the use of rapid diagnostic tests in areas of high transmission. Report of a WHO technical consultation. Geneva, Switzerland.

World Health Organization, 2008. Methods manual for laboratory quality control testing of malaria rapid diagnostic tests. UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO. Special programme for research and training in tropical disease (TDR). Foundation for Innovative Diagnosis (FIND) 1216 Geneva, Switzerland.

World Health Organization: Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test Performance; Results of WHO product testing of malaria RDTs: Round 2 (2009), 2010. http://www.finddiagnostics.org/resource-centre/reports_brochures/malaria diagn ostic-test-report-round2.html

Yoel, W.C., Murray, C.K., Gray, M., Miller, R.S., McDaniel, P., Liao, W.J., Pickard, A.L., Magill, A.J., 2007. Co-infection with malaria and leptospirosis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 68, 583-585.

Zurovac, D., Midia, B., Ochola, S.A., English, M., Snow, R.W., 2006. Microscopy and outpatient malaria case management among older children and adults in Kenya. Trop. Med. Int. Health, 11, 432-440.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.