Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access
Cover Image

A Critical Review on the Efficacy of Integrated Child Development Service Scheme with concern to Growth Progressions in Early Childhood

J. E. JOSEPH

Abstract


A growing body of evidence suggests that supplementary feeding programs have a positive effect on reducing malnutrition prevalence in developing countries. In India, despite substantial funding of its early childhood development program, which has a large supplementary feeding component, levels of child malnutrition have fallen only slightly. Using propensity score matching to identify impacts in data from the Integrated Child Development Services scheme ICDS collected between 2005 and 2006, this paper finds that India’s ICDS have a significant effect on malnutrition rates. These findings point to the importance of investing in various growth factors and sanitation, and educating the public about hygiene to promote health knowledge and better child outcomes. As importantly, such investments have the potential of making the feeding program more effective.

References


Adjuik, M., Smith, T., Clark, S., and Todd, J., (2006). Cause-specific mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa and Bangladesh. World Health Organization. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 84(3): 181-8.

Afridi, F. (2010). Child welfare programs and child nutrition: Evidence from a mandated school meal program in India. Journal of Development Economics. 92: 152-165.

Annual Report (1998-99). Dept, of Women and Child Development, Ministry of HRD pp. 48

Arimond, M. & Ruel T. (2002). Assessing care: Progress towards the measurement of selected child care and feeding practices, and implications for programs. Washington, DC, USA: Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project, Academy for Educational Development.

Aubel, J., Toure, I. & Diagne, M. (2004). Senegalese grandmothers promote improvedmaternal and child nutrition practices: the guardians of tradition are not adverse to change. Social Science and Medicine 59(5): 945-959.

Basile, C.G. (2000). Environmental education as a catalyst fortransfer of learning in young children. Journal of Environmental Education, 32 (1): 21-27.

Bauman, A., Bellew, B., Vita, P., Brown, W., & Owen, N. (2002). Getting Australia Active: Towards better practice for the promotion of physical activity. (Summary). Melbourne, Australia: National Public Health Partnership. pp. 109-113

Bayat, M. (2007). Evidence of resilience in families of children with autism. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 51(9): 702-714.

Berk, E. L. (1996). Child development (31d edn.), New Delhi, Prentice Hall of India Private Ltd., 218-317.

Bezner Kerr, R., Dakishoni, L., Shumba, L., Msachi, R., & Chirwa, M. (2008). “We Grandmothers Know Plenty”: Breastfeeding, complementary feeding and the multifaceted role of grandmothers in Malawi. Social Science & Medicine 66(5): 1095-1105.

Biriukova, N.A. (2005). The formation of an ecologicalconsciousness. Russian Education & Society. 47 (12): 34-35.

Boyd, B. A. (2002). Examining the relationship between stress and lack of social support in mothers of children with autism. Focus on Autism & Other Developmental Disabilities. 17(4): 208.

Bull, F. C., Bauman, A. E., Bellow, B., & Brown, W. (2004). Getting Australia active II: An update of evidence on phyiscal activity for health. Melbourne, Australia: National Public Health Partnership.

Campbell FA, Ramey CT (1994). Effects of early intervention on intellectual andacademic achievement: a follow-up study of children from low-incomefamilies. Child Dev. 65:684–98.

Carande-Kulis VG, Maciosek MV, Briss PA. (2000). Methods for systematicreviews of economic evaluations for the Guide to Community PreventiveServices. Am J Prev Med. 18(suppl 1):75–91.

Chowdhry , P. (1998). Training ICDS workers. Fresh approach needed, Social Welfare. 45 (5): 5.

Cohen, J. R. (1996). Exercises in psychological testing and assessment (3rd edn.), California, Mayfield Publishing Company, pp. 56.

Currie J. (2002) Early childhood education programs. J Emerg Med. 15:213–38.

Dasgupta, M., Gragnolati, M., & Ivashenko, O. (2005). Improving Child Nutrition? The Integrated Child Development Services in India? Development and Change. 36 (4) : 613-640.

Davis, J. (1998). Young children, environmental education, andthe future. Early Childhood Education Journal. 26(2) :117-123.

Deutsch, F. M., Lussier, J. B., & Servis, L. J. (1993). Husbands at home: Predictors of paternal participationin childcare and housework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1(6) :1154–1166.

Devadas, P. R. and Jaya, N. (1996). A text book on child development, New Delhi, Macmillan Indian Limited, pp.75.

Engle, P., (1992). Care and Child Nutrition Paper for the International Conference on Nutrition. UNICEF, New York. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 161(8) : 730-739.

Ghosh S. (1993) Second thoughts on growth monitoring. Indian Pediatrics. 30:449-453

Gopalan C. (1992) Growth charts in primary child health care. Time for reassessment. NFI Bull. 13(3): 1-4

Greene, R. R. (2006). Social work practice: A risk and resilience perspective. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.

Haktanır, G. & Çabuk, B. (2000). National Conference on Child Health Care System Proceedings, Full paper & Abstract. pp. s76-81.

Hands, B., Parker, H., Glasson, C., Brinkman, S., & Read, H. (2004). Physicalactivity and nutrition levels in Western Australian children and adolescents: report. Perth, Western Australia: Western Australian Government. pp. 190-245.

Horton, R. (2008). Maternal and child under nutrition: an urgent opportunity. Lancet 371:179-179.

Hurlock, E. B. (1990). Developmental psychology, A life span approach (5" edn.), New Delhi, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing CO. Ltd., 113-116.

Independent Sport Panel Australian Government. (2009). The future of sport in Australia. Canberra, ACT: Commonwealth of Australia : intervention on adult health and well-being: A 19-year follow-up of low income. pp. 234-289.

Kandpal E., & McNamara, P.E. (2008). Persistent Child Malnutrition in India: Evidence from the National Family Health Survey (2005-06). Economic and Political Weekly. 6(2): 34-43.

Kapil U. (1989). Monitoring and Continuing Education System in ICDS scheme. A module for National Health programme. Indian Pediatrics. 26:863- 867.

Kennedy E and Slack A. (1993) The integrated child development services (ICDS) in India Lessons learned and Implications for Future Policies. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washinton DC. pp 1211-1453.

Kidd, A.H. & Kidd, R.M.(1990). Social and environmental influences on children’s attitudes toward pets. Psycholojical Reports, 76: 807-818.

Law, C. (2001). Adult obesity and growth in childhood: children who grow rapidly during childhood are more likely to be obese as adults. British Medical Journal, 323(7325): 678-688.

Malina, R. (2001). Tracking of physical activity across the lifespan. President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports: Research Digest, 3(14): 1-8.

Marcus, L.M., Kunce, L.J., & Schopler, E. (2005). Working with families. In F.R.

Martorell, R. (1997). Undernutrition during pregnancy and early child hood: Consequences for cognitive and behavioural development, Amsterdam. Elsevier. 21: 39-83.

Miles, L. (2007). Physical activity and health. Nutrition Bulletin, 32(4): 314-363.

Ministry of Human Resource Development. (1996) Department of Women and Child Development. Annual Report 1995-96, Part IV. Government of India Press, New Delhi. pp. 6-9.

Nair, C. K. M. (2000). Health as an entry point for early childhood care - county example of India (Abstract), Trivandrum, Child Development Centre, Medical College.

National Statistics Office (NSO) (2011) Malawi demographic and health survey 2010. Zomba, Malawi: Malawi National Statistics Office (NSO).

Nikolaeva, S. (2008). The ecological education of preschoolchildren. Russian Education & Society. 50(3): 64-72. doi:10.2753/RES1060.

NIN, ICDS and Psychosocial Development - Nutrition News (1995). 16(2):1-2.

Osmani, S., & Sen, A. (2003). The hidden penalties of gender inequality: Fetal origins of ill-health. Economics and Human Biology. 1(1): 105-121.

Plant, K. M., & Sanders, M. R. (2007). Predictors of care-giver stress in families of preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 51(2): 109-124.

Pollit, E., Gorman, K. S., Engle, P. L., Martorell, R. (1993). Early supplementary feeding and cognition: effects ver two decades, society for research in child development, Amsterdam. Elsevier. 58: 1-99.

Reynolds, A. J., Temple, J. A., Ou, S. R., Robertson, D. L., Mersky, J. P., Topitzes, J. W., & Niles, M.D. (2007). Effects of a school-based, early childhood.

Ruel, M. T. (2000). Urbanization in Latin America: Constraints and opportunities for child feeding and care. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 21 (1): 12-24.

Ruel, M. T. (2003). Operationalizing dietary diversity: a review of measurement issues and research priorities. The Journal of Nutrition. 133 (11): 3911-3926.

Rushton, S., & Larkin, E. (2001). Shaping the learning environment: Connecting developmentally appropriate practices to brain research. Early Childhood Education Journal. 29(1): 25-33.

Rutter, M. (2002). The interplay of nature, nurture and developmental influences: The challenge ahead for mental health. Archives of General Psychiatry 59:11

Samuelsson P.I., & Kaga¸ Y. (2008). The contribution of early childhood education to a sustainable society. UNESCO: Paris.

Sharma, R. N. (1998). Child Psychology, New Delhi, Surjeet Publications. pp.110

Shi, L., & Zhang, J. (2011). Recent evidence of the effectiveness of educational interventions for improving complementary feeding practices in developing countries. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 57(2): 91-98.

Shilton, T., & Naughton, G. (2001). Physical activity and children - a statement of importance and call to action from the Heart Foundation, from http://fulltext.ausport.gov.au/fulltext/2001/nhf/call_to_action.asp

Sizer, F. and Whitney, E. (1994). Nutrition-Concepts and Contraversies (6 edn.), New York, West Publishing Co. pp. 357.

Skinner, E. C. (1996). Educational Psychology, New Delhi, Prentice Hall of India Ltd. pp. 529, 293.

Sood, N. (1992). Pre-school education in ICDS - An appraisal, Delhi, NIPCCID. pp. 46-48.

Srilakshmi, B. (1998). Dietetics, New Delhi, New Age International Pvt. Ltd. pp. 47, 48.

Swami, H.M., Thakur, J.S., Bhatia, S.P., & Bhatia, V. (2001). Nutritional status of pre-school children in Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) block of Chandigarh. Journal of the Indian Medical Association. 99(10) : 554-556.

Tandon BN and Kapil U. (1991) ICDS scheme. A programme for development of mother and child health. Indian Pediatrics. 28: 1425- 1428.

Trost, S. G. (2003). Discussion paper for the development of recommendations for children's and youths' participation in health promoting physical activity. Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing, Australian Government.

Twoy, R., Connolly, P. M., & Novak, J. M. (2007). Coping strategies used by parents of children with autism. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners. 19(5) : 251-260.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1999). The first progress report on Head Start program performance measures. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

Victoria, C., Huttly, S., Barros, F.C., Lombardi, C., & Vaughn, J.P. (1992). Maternal education in relation to early and late child health outcomes: Finding from a Brazilian cohort study. Social Science & Medicine. 34 (8) :899-905.

Volkmar, R. Paul, A. Klin, & D. Cohen (Eds), Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders (3rd edition, pp. 1055-1086). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Vyas, J. N. (1994). Child Psychology, Bikaner, Medi World Press, 126, 135.

Wilford, R., Golden, K., & Walker, D. G. (2012). Cost-effectiveness of community-based management of acute malnutrition in Malawi. Health policy and planning. 27(2): 127-137.

Williams, C. L., Hayman, L. L., Daniels, S. R., Robinson, T. N., Steinberger, J., Paridon, S.,Bazzarre, T. (2002). Cardiovascular health in childhood: A statement for health professionals from the Committee on Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in the Young (AHOY) of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, American Heart Association. Journal of the American Heart Association. 106: 143-160.

Wood, L., & D'Arcy, M. (2001). Active communities - a concept to promote physical activity at the community level in WA. Why the need for people to be more physically active? from http://fulltext.ausport.gov.au/fulltext/2001/wa/actcom.pdf.

Yang, X., Telama, R., Leskinen, E., Mansikkaniemi, K., Viikari, J., & Raitakari, O. T. (2007). Testing a model of physical activity and obesity tracking from youth to adulthood: The cardiovascular risk in young Finns study. International Journal of Obesity. 31: 521-527.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.