Cover Image

Analysis of smoke control models at long tunnel: A case study on the Hsueh-shan tunnel

Chen-Wei Chiu, Chi-Sheng Huang, Chiun-Hsun Chen


This study used the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) to simulate a fire in a 5000 meters long section of the Hsuehshan tunnel (12.9km in total length). Actual distances were considered in jet fan simulations and steady-state velocity profiles were simulated in tunnel portals. A worst-case analysis was performed for the area between two vertical shafts in the tunnel. To prevent the smoke from becoming an obstacle in the Hsuehshan tunnel, fans located 250 meters upwind and 500 meters downwind of the fire source were deactivated. The smoke control system currently used in the Hsuehshan tunnel includes activation of four jet fans upwind of the fire and intermittent operation of jet fans downwind of the fire. This system was examined in this study as benchmark model Eva1 and compared with the alternative evacuation plans Eva2, Eva3 and Eva4. The results indicated that, regardless of fan activation, the downwind area of the fire remained dangerous. With regard to upwind safety, it was calculated that adults with an average walking speed of 1.2m/s and weak evacuees with an average walking speed of 0.64m/s would need 205 and 227 seconds respectively to traverse 30 meters. In Eva1 and Eva2, for 15MW, 30MW and 65MW heat release rates (HRRs), tunnel users situated within 30 meters from the fire source would not be able to escape safely.


Baum, H.R., McCaffrey, B.J., 1989. Fire induced flow field-theory and experiment. Fire Saf. Sci., 2, 129-148.

Hua, G.Y., Wang, W., Zhao, Y.H., Li, L., 2008a. Discussion on fire protection design of urban traffic link tunnel. Build. Sci., 24, 15-18.

Hua, G.Y., Wang, W., Zhao, Y.H., Li, L., 2008b. Study on smoke evacuation strategy in an urban traffic link tunnel fire. The First International Conference on Building Energy and Environment, 2143-2149.

Kunsch, J.P., 2002. Simple model for control of fire gases in a ventilated tunnel. Fire Saf. J., 37, 67-81.

Lin, C., Chuah, Y.K., 2008. A study on long tunnel smoke extraction strategies by numerical simulation. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 23, 522-530.

McGrattan, K.B., Howard, R.B., Ronald, G.R., 1998. Large eddy simulations of smoke movement. Fire Saf. J., 30(2), 161-178.

Tetzner, D., Pollak, R., Sippel, M., 1999. Critical velocity - comparative assessment of test results and CFD simulation. International Conference on Tunnel Fire and Escape from Tunnels, 181-190.

Vauquelin, O., Wu, Y., 2006. Influence of tunnel width on longitudinal smoke control. Fire Saf. J., 41, 420-426.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.