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The genus Enterococcus spp., a perspective from a focus on health to its biotechnological application

Alejandro de Jesús Cortés-Sánchez, Lidia Rosa Barrón-Sosa

Abstract


The enterococci are a bacteria group that can be found in several environments, such as water, plants, animals and gastrointestinal tract in humans and animals. These microorganisms have entered into the spotlight for aspects related to health like: a bigger incidence in hospitable and community diseases, as the main causal agent; a phenomenon of resistance, in isolated food strains and clinical cases, to different antimicrobials, including those used on a regular basis in clinical therapies, and a spreading and transference capacity to other microorganisms. However, this group has also contributed to the well-being of human health, since it has been used around the globe as a biological indicator of water and food quality in order to both protect and look the health out against transmission risks of several pathogen agents; and finally, some species of this genre have been reported as factors involved in the production and preservation of foods, starting in the synthesis of several chemical compounds, favoring the consumer’s health. Due to the aforementioned, this present document is focused on showing a general vision of the genre Enterococcus spp. and its duality in human health; i.e. its harmful side, as a causal agent of diseases; and its beneficial side, in the control and sanitary surveillance in water and foods to protect the human health against biological risks, and its contribution to the development, foods preservation and effects on the consumer’s health.

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