Cover Image

Recent progress in sustainable development and environmentally friendly energy systems: Case of Sudan

Abdeen Mustafa Omer

Abstract


The move towards a low-carbon world, driven partly by climate science and partly by the business opportunities it offers, will need the promotion of environmentally friendly alternatives, if an acceptable stabilisation level of atmospheric carbon dioxide is to be achieved. People are relying upon oil for primary energy and this will continue for a few more decades. Other conventional sources may be more enduring, but are not without serious disadvantages. The renewable energy resources are particularly suited for the provision of rural power supplies and a major advantage is that equipment such as flat plate solar driers, wind machines, etc., can be constructed using local resources. Without the advantage results from the feasibility of local maintenance and the general encouragement such local manufacture gives to the build up of small-scale rural based industry. This communication comprises a comprehensive review of energy sources, the environment and sustainable development. It includes the renewable energy technologies, energy efficiency systems, energy conservation scenarios, energy savings in greenhouses environment and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce climate change. This study gives some examples of small-scale energy converters, nevertheless it should be noted that small conventional, i.e., engines are currently the major source of power in rural areas and will continue to be so for a long time to come. There is a need for some further development to suit local conditions, to minimise spares holdings, to maximise the interchangeability of the engine parts, and of the engine applications. Emphasis should be placed on full local manufacture. It is concluded that renewable environmentally friendly energy must be encouraged, promoted, implemented and demonstrated by a full-scale plant (device) especially for use in remote rural areas.


References


Abdeen, M.O., 2008a. Renewable building energy systems and passive human comfort solutions. Renew. Sustain. Energy. Rev., 12(6), 1562-1587.

Abdeen, M.O., 2008b. People, power and pollution. Renew. Sustain. Energy. Rev., 12(7), 1864-1889.

Abdeen, M.O., 2008c. Energy, environment and sustainable development. Renew. Sustain. Energy. Rev., 12(9), 2265-2300.

Abdeen, M.O., 2008d. Focus on low carbon technologies: The positive solution. Renew. Sustain. Energy. Rev., 12(9), 2331-2357.

Abdeen, M.O., 2008e. Chapter 10: Development of integrated bioenergy for improvement of quality of life of poor people in developing countries. In F. L. Magnusson & O. W. Bengtsson (Eds.), Energy in Europe: Economics, policy and strategy (341-373). New York, NY: NOVA Science Publishers.

Abdeen, M.O., 2009a. Environmental and socio-economic aspect of possible development in renewable energy use. In Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Environment, Athens, Greece, 21-24 May.

Abdeen, M.O., 2009b. Energy use, environment and sustainable development. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Sustainable Energy and Environmental Protection (SEEP 2009), Paper No.1011, Dublin, Republic of Ireland, 12-15 August.

Abdeen, M.O., 2009c. Energy use and environmental: Impacts: A general review. J. Renew. Sustain. Energy., 1(5), 1-29.

Abdeen, M.O., 2009d. Chapter 3: Energy use, environment and sustainable development. In R. T. Mancuso (Ed.), Environmental cost management, (129-166). New York, NY: NOVA Science Publishers.

Cheng, R., 2010. Advanced biofuel technologies: status and barriers. World Bank Report, WPS5411.

Cihan, G., Dursun, B., Bora, A., Erkan, S., 2009. Importance of biomass energy as alternative to other sources in Turkey. Energy Policy, 37(2), 424-431.

Duffie, J.A., Beckman, W.A., 1980. Solar Engineering of Thermal Process. New York: Wiley Interscience.

Elamin, S.M.E., 1995. Towards Participative Approach for the Design of Appropriate Energy Technology in Sudan Rural Settings. MSc. Thesis. University of Khartoum (UOK). Khartoum: Sudan.

Energy Research Institute (ERI), 1987. Renew. Energy. Resour. Poten. Sudan. Khartoum: Sudan.

Joop, V.M., Paul, H., Omer, A.M., 1987. Evaluation of Sudan Wind Energy Project. The Netherlands: CWD-ERC.

Kirtikara, K., 1983. Solar radiation and measurement. In Proceedings of Seminar on Solar Energy and Applications. Bangkok: Thailand.

Kothari, D.P., Singal, K.C., Rakesh, Ranjan, 2011. Renewable energy sources and emerging technologies, 2nd Edition, Private Ltd, New Delhi.

National Energy Administration (NEA), 1983a. Renewable Energy Assessment for the Sudan. Khartoum: Sudan.

National Energy Administration (NEA), 1983b. A pre-investment study for fuel production from agricultural wastes for power generation and household consumption. Khartoum: Sudan.

National Energy Administration (NEA), 1985. The National Energy Plan 1985-2000. Khartoum: Sudan.

National Energy Administration (NEA), 1991. Energy Handbook. Khartoum: Sudan.

Omer, A.M., 1990. Solar Atlas for Sudan. P. G. Thesis. University of Khartoum (UOK). Khartoum: Sudan.

Omer, A.M., 1993. Wind speeds and wind power potential in Sudan. In Proceedings of the 4th Arab International Solar Energy Conference. Amman, Jordan, 20-25 November. Amman: Renew. Energy. Res. Cent.

Omer, A.M., 1994. Renewable energy technology applications in the Sudan. In Proceedings of the 3rd World Renewable Energy Congress. Reading, UK, 11-16 September. Oxford: Elsevier Science Ltd.

Omer, A.M., 1995a. Rainfall patterns in Sudan. NETWAS News, 2(7), 4-7.

Omer, A.M., 1995b. Solar energy technology applications in the Sudan. In Proceedings of the 1st Jordanian Mechanical Engineering Conference. Amman, Jordan, 25-28 June. Amman: Jordan. Mech. Eng. Assoc.

Omer, A.M., 1996a. Renewable energy potential and future prospect in Sudan. Agr. Dev. Arab. World., 3(1), 4-13.

Omer, A.M., 1996b. Biogas technology and environment. Regional Energy News, 2(4), 2-5.

Omer, A.M., 1996c. Solar energy potential and future prospect in Sudan. In Proceedings of the 4th World Renewable Energy Congress. Denver, USA, 15-21 June. Oxford: Elsevier Science Ltd.

Omer, A.M., 1997a. Review of Hydropower in Sudan. Khartoum: Sudan.

Omer, A.M., 1997b. Compilation and evaluation of solar and wind energy resources in Sudan. Renew. Energy., 12(1), 39-69.

Omer, A.M., 1998a. Sudan energy background; an overview. Renew. Energy., 14(1-4), 467-472.

Omer, A.M., 1998b. Horizons of using wind energy and establishing wind stations in Sudan. Dirasat, 25(3), 545-552.

Omer, A.M., 1998c. Renewable energy potential and environmentally appropriate technologies in Sudan. Khartoum: Sudan.

Omer, A.M., 1998d. Renewable energy resources in Sudan. In Proceedings of the 5th World Renewable Energy Congress. Florence, Italy, 19-25 September. Oxford: Elsevier Science Ltd.

Omer, A.M., 1999a. Sudan experience in biomass energy. Khartoum: Sudan.

Omer, A.M., 1999b. Biomass energy potential and future prospect in Sudan. Khartoum: Sudan.

Omer, A.M., 2008a. Green energies and the environment. Renew. Sustain. Energy. Rev., 12, 1789-1821.

Omer, A.M., 2008b. On the wind energy resources of Sudan. Renew. Sustain. Energy. Rev., 12(8), 2117-2139.

Omer, A.M., 2008c. Energy demand for heating and cooling equipment systems and technology advancements. In J. R. White & W. H. Robinson (Eds.), Natural resources: Economics, management and policy, 131-165.

Omer, A.M., 2009a. Energy use and environmental impacts: A general review. Renew. Sustain. Energy., 1, 1-29.

Omer, A.M., 2009b. October-November). Principle of low energy building design: Heating, ventilation and air conditioning. Cooling India: India’s Premier Magazine on the Cooling Industry, Mumbai, India. 5(4), 26-46.

Omer, A.M., 2010a. Chapter 9: Development of sustainable energy research and applications. In W. H. Lee and V. G. Cho (Eds.), Handbook of sustainable energy, (385-418). New York, NY: NOVA Science Publishers, Inc.

Omer, A.M., 2010b. The crux of matter: Water in the Republic of the Sudan, (1-50). New York, NY: NOVA Science Publishers, Inc.

World Resource Institute (WRI), 1994. World resources: A guide to the global environment, people and the environment.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.