Cover Image

The effects of Ephedra (Ephedra funereal) and protexin probiotic on some blood parameters in male Japanese quail (Coturnix Japonica)

Farshid Kheiri, Hasan Ali Ghasemi, Sayeed Mohammad Ali Jalali Hajiabadi


This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding Ephedra and protexin on performance and some hematological parameters of male Japanese quail. A total of 240 seven days old quail chicks were divided into 8 treatments with 3 replicates as factorial randomized design. The treatments were divided as basal diet with no protexin and Ephedra kept as control, and 0.02 % (E1), 0.04% (E2) and 0.06 % (E3) Ephedra with 0.01 % or without protexin as P0 and P 1 were used respectively. The live body weight gains and feed consumption of birds were measured individually feed conversion efficiency were calculated. At the end of the trial for investigating the effect of using protexin and Ephedra supplementation on performance of quails, 2 birds (male) form each replicates were slaughtered and some blood samples were taken for hematological parameters determination. Data showed that using of protexin and Ephedra increased feed intake (FI) in treatments compared to control. Also body weight (BW) (g/d) and Pre-slaughter weigh (g) were higher in protexin and Ephedra compared to the control. There were no significant differences (p<0.05) for feed conversation ratio (FCR) among treatments. As result was relevant from this study there were significant differences (p≤0.05) between blood parameters. Data showed that the glucose level had increased none significantly by using Ephedra and protexin. The triglyceride, cholesterol and LDL were increased significantly (p≤0.05) by using experimental diets. HDL, albumin and globulin levels were decreased by using Ephedra and protexin. In conclusion we demonstrated that protexin and Ephedra may be used as ingredient in quails ration without harming effects on performance and some blood parameters of male Japanese quails.


Abdallah, A.H., Tye, A., Lapidus, J.B., Patil, P., 1967. Effects of ephedrine isomers on myocardial catecholamines. Life. Sci. 6(1), 39-43.

Abourashed, E., El-Alfy, A., Khan, I., Walker, L., 2003. Ephedra in perspective a current review. Phytother. Res. 17 (7), 703–12.

AOAC., 2000. Official methods of analysis, association of official analytical chemists. AOAC Press, Gaithersburg, USA.

Anon., 1996. Herbs to handle with care. New York: Newsweek.

Ayasan, T., Okan, F., 2001. The effect of a diet with different probiotic (Protexin) levels on the fattening performance and carcass characteristics of Japanese quails. Proceedings of XV Europeanth symposium on the quality of poultry meat. 169-174.

Ayasan, T., Ozcan, B.D., Baylan, M., Canogullari, S., 2006. The effects of dietary inclusion of probiotic Protexin on egg yield parameters of Japanese quails (Coturnix Japonica). Int. j. poultry. Sci. 5(8), 776-779.

Azadegan, mehr.M., Shamsshargh, M., Dastar, B., Hassani, S., Akbari, M.R., 2007. Effects of different levels of protein and protexin of broiler performance. Int. j. poultry. Sci. 6 (8), 573-577.

Balevi, T., Ucan, U., Cosun, B., Kurtogu, V., Cetingul, I., 2001. Effect of dietary probiotic on performance and humoral immune response in layer hens. Br. Poultry. Sci. 42, 456-61. Duncan, D.B., 1955. Multiple range test and F-test. Biometrics. 11, 1- 42.

Buemann, B., Marckmann, P., Christensen, N.J., Astrup, A., 1994. The effect of ephedrine plus caffeine on plasma lipids and lipoproteins during a 4.2 MJ/day diet. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 18(5), 329-32.

Cyberhorse., 1999. Int. Anim. Health. Prod. The Australian Company ACN 003 185 699, Australia.

Cui, Jian-fang et al., 1991. Analysis of alkaloids in Chinese Ephedra species by GC methods. Phytochemical Analysis 2(3).

Hoffman, B.B., Lefkowitz, R.J., 1996. Catecholamines, sympathomimetic drugs, and adrenergic receptor antagonists. In: Hardman JG, Limbird LE, Molinoff PB, Ruddon, W., Gilman, A.G., editors. Goodman and Gilman's the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 9th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill. 199–248.

Iranian Herbal Pharmacopoeia., I, 325-333. II, 497-505, 578-581.

Jamroz, D., Orda, J., Kamel, C., Williczkiewicz, A., Wertelecki, T., Skorupin’Ska, J., 2003. The influence of phytogenic extract on performance, nutrients digestibility, crcass characteristic and gut microbial Status in broiler chickens. J. Anim. Feed. Sci., 12(3), 583-596.

Janssen, A.M., 1989. Antimicrobial activities of essential oils: A pharmacognostical study. Dissertation, Rijksuniversiteit t e Leiden.

Jin, L.Z., Ho, Y.W., Abdullah, N., Jalaludin, S., 1997. Probiotics in poultry: modes of action. World. Poult. Sci. J. 53, 351-368.

Kalbane, V.H., Gaffar, M.A., Deshmukh, S.V., 1992. Effect of probiotic and nitrofurin on performance of growing commercial pullets. Indian. J. Poult. Sci. 27, 116-117.

Manzanilla, E.G., Baucells, F., Kamel, C., Morales, J., Perez, J.F., Gasa, J., 2001. Effects of Plant Extracts on the Performance and Lower Gut Microflora of Early Weaned Piglets. J. Anim. Sci. Suppl. 1, 473. (Abstract).

Martindale, 33th Edition. 2002, 1610.3, 1610.1.

Moon-Koo Song Jae. Young Um Hyeung. Jin Jang Byung. Cheol Lee. 2012. Beneficial effect of dietary Ephedra sinica on obesity and glucose intolerance in high-fat diet-fed mice. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 3, 707-712.

NRC, National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient requirements of poultry. 9th Rev. Ed., Washington, DC. National Academy Press.

Oksbjerg, N., Sorensen, M.T., 1996. Effects of ephedrine and caffeine on chemical composition and istochemistry of muscle in pigs. Acta. Agric. Scand. Section A. Anim. Sci., 46, 125-128.

Panda, A.K., Reddy, M.R., Chawak, M.M., 2000. Dietary supplementation of probiotic on serum cholesterol,gut microflora and performance of broilers. Poultry. Sci. Assoc. December (Suppl.).

Parreira, D., 1998. Trial Results. Provimi Company.Portugal.

Salminen, S., Ouwehand, A., Benno, Y., Lee, Y.K., 1999. Probiotics: How should they be defined? Trends in Food Sci. Tec., 10, 107-110.

Sarica, S., Ciftci, A., Demir, E., Kilinc, K., Yildirim, Y., 2005. Use of an antibiotic growth promoter and two herbal natural feed additives with and without exogenous enzymes in wheat based broiler diets. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 35, 61-72.

Solecki, Ralph, S., 1975. Shanidar IV, a neanderthal flower burial in Northern Iraq. Science 190(4217), 880–881.

SAS institute, SAS/STAT user’s guide for personal computer., 2001. Release 6.12 SAS institute, Inc., Cary, N.C., USA.

Shabani, R., Nosrati, M., Javandel, F., Alaw Gothbi, A.A., Kioumarsi, H., 2012. The effect of probiotics on growth performance of broilers. Ann. Biol. Res. 3(12), 5450-5452.

Toubro, S., Astrup, A., Breum, L., Quaade, F., 1993.The acute and chronic effects of ephedrine/caffeine mixtures on energy expenditure and glucose metabolism in humans. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 73–77.

Tortuero, F., 1973. Influence of the implantation of Lactobacillus acidophilus in chicks on growth, feed conversion, malabsorption of fat syndrome and intestinal flora. Poultry. Sci. 52, 197-203.

Vahdatpour, T., Nikpiran, H., Babazadeh, D., Vahdatpour, S., Jafargholipour, M.A., 2011. Effects of Protexin®, Fermacto® and combination of them on blood enzymes and performance of Japanese quails (Coturnix Japonica). Ann. Biol. Res. 2 (3), 283-291.

Vali, N., 2009. Probiotic in quail nutrition: A Review. Int. J. Poultry. Sc. 8(12), 1218-22.

Vansal, S.S., Feller., 1999. Direct effects of ephedrine isomers on human beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes. Biochem. Pharmacol.

Zamiri, M.J., Karimi, A., 2005. Effect of ephedrine on carcass characteristics of fat tailed sheeps. Iranian J. Sci. Technol. Transaction A, 29(A1).

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.