|Enrique González Pérez|
|Genetic, Colegio de Postgraduados|
|In San Martín Texmelucan, Pue., the gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus Hort.) is one of the more important crops. Since years ago, this crop has production problems, which are mainly caused by fungal pathogens and nutritional imbalance. This research was divided into three parts. In the first one the objective was to determine the effect of fertilization on the phenology, growth, flower quality, performance and health of the cultivation of two gladiolus varieties; in the second part was studied in vitro the reproduction of gladiolus plants free of phytopathogenic fungi and established an environment of acclimatization, and the third and last objective was to identify morphological and molecularly species of Penicillium causing corm rot in storage. In the first part was found that the fertilization does not affect the phenology, yield and quality of gladiolus flowers, and therefore low doses of nitrogen (40 Kg ha-1) combined with contributions from boron and sulfur, the plants reduce mortality (4.8 %) without affecting crop development. In the second study healthy gladiolus plants were produced from apical meristems by using Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.2 mg L-1 of auxin naphthalenacetic acid. The best environment acclimatization where 95% of seedling survived was obtained under 75 % shading net, 16.8 ºC, and relative humidity of 52.4 %. In the third and last part, two Penicillium species showed to be responsible for dry rot of storaged corms. The first one, P. brevicompactum is reported for first time in México and worldwide; and the second one, P. sp. will be defined with kind collaboration of an expert of the IMA (International Mycological Association), and besides also involving some other gene analysis such as Beta tubulin2. Thus, we concluded that it is possible to produce high quality gladiolus with the methodologies above developed in this research.
Key words: gladiolus, phenology, in vitro, pathogens.